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yyiiftmotL  /BallaliofL  TyUmiiimmt 

i     386] 

JULY,     1938 

VOLUME     4  I  NUMBi. 

SALT    LAKE      CITY.    UTAH 

This  White  Cross 
at  Shell  Dealers'  means  you 
can  be  sure  -LOOK  FOR  IT! 



in  accordance  with  the  editorial  specifications  of 


/  will  appreciate  your  co-operation  in  helping  me  keep  this  pledge. 

IN  the  April  issue,  Good  Housekeep- 
ing Magazine  published  an  article 
about  station  rest  rooms,  telling  how 
they  ought  to  be  equipped  and  how 
clean  they  ought  to  be  kept  in  the  in- 
terest of  public  health  and  comfort. 

We  Shell  dealers  heard  of  this  article 
and  read  it  with  much  interest. 

Since  then  our  station  rest  rooms 
have  been  inspected,  and  dealers 
whose  rest  rooms  were  found  up  to 
the  standards  specified  by  Good 
Housekeeping  have  been  given  the 
wHome-Clean  Certificate"  shown. 

We  who  have  been  awarded  the  Cer-  awarded  the  Certificate.  If  you  find  a 
tificate  have  agreed  to  keep  our  rest  rest  room  that  falls  below  Good  House- 
rooms  scrupulously  clean,  and  we  un-  keeping  standards,  write  your  criti- 
derstand  that  the  Certificate  will  be  cism  on  a  card  and  mail  it. 
withdrawn  fromus  if  we  fail  to  do  this.  When  on  the  road,  look  for  Shell's 
Our  rest  rooms  will  be  inspected  WHITE  CROSS  OF  CLEANLINESS  dis- 
regularly.  Also,  we  are  providing  post  played  in  front  of  stations.  It  means 
cards  in  rest  rooms  which  have  been  you  can  be  sure. 






(Buy.  (Bs&L  SuqaJv 

Stock  up  on  beet  sugar  now  for  a  big  season  of  home  canning  of  the  plen- 
tiful supply  of  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  now  on  the  market.  Look  ahead 
and  plan  to  fill  your  cupboards  with  delicacies,  which  you'll  relish  and  be 
thankful  for  next  winter! 

Use  extra-fine,  pure,  granulated  beet  sugar  —  the  finest  you  can  buy.  It's 
quick-dissolving  and  unsurpassed  for  canning  and  preserving.  Also  cheap- 
er, therefore,  more  economical  to  use. 

FARM   SURPLUSES  .  .  .  . 

All  America  is  concerned  with  farm  surpluses,  because  surpluses  af- 
fect the  purchasing  power  of  the  farmer,  and,  in  turn,  the  whole  struc- 
ture of  American  economic  life. 

American  farmers  raise  approximately  one  million  acres  of  sugar  beets 
each  year.  What's  more,  a  million  acres  in  sugar  beets  is  not  another 
million  surplus  acres  of  wheat  or  corn! 

Furthermore,  no  other  major  American  crop  returns  to  the  farmer  as 
much  per  acre  and  contributes  to  industry  and  agriculture  as  much  as 
the  sugar  beet  and  the  resultant  beet  sugar  industry. 

America  needs  the  beet  sugar  industry  .  .  .  the  industry  needs  the  sup- 
port of  farmers,  merchants,  housewives,  canneries,  and  statesmen. 




'The  Glory  of  God  is  Intelligence' 

JULY,      1938 

VOLUME     41 

NUMBER      7 

"THE    VOICE    OF    THE    CHURCH" 


Heber  J.  Grant, 
John  A.  Widtsoe, 


Richard  L.  Evans, 

Managing  Editor 
Marba  C.  Josephson, 

Associate  Editor 

George   Q.   Morris,   General  Mgr. 
Lucy  G.  Cannon,  Associate  Mgr. 
J.  K.  Orton,  Business  Mgr. 

JohlsL  jd(L  QwdtswiA, 

JPul  £dihfiL  (Pago, 

A  Word  to  Youth  . 

Heber  J.  Grant  391 

Serve  Your  "Own  Generation" John  A.  Widtsoe  392 

An  "Ideal"  Book  of  Mormon  Geography ...  Lynn  C*  Layton  394 

The  Lord's  Way  Out  of  Bondage     LeRoi  C.  Snow  400 

The  Story  of  Our  Hymns.. George  D,  Pyper  404 

Some  Photographic  Highlights  of  June  Conference 405 

Our  Friend-Making  Missionaries  in  the  Netherlands 

J*  Paul  Vorkink  and  Joseph  P.  Lambert  412 

Bates  College  Confers  Honorary  Degree  on  Frank  W. 
Asper,  387;  News  of  the  West  German  Mission,  Fred  W. 
Babbel,  433;  Another  Trek  to  Hill  Cumorah,  Ira  J.  Markham, 
411;  The  Church  Moves  On,  415;  Visual  Aid  in  the  Cali- 
fornia Mission,  421;  Priesthood:  Melchizedek,  422;  Ward 
Teaching,  426;  Aaronic  Priesthood,  427;  Genealogical  Page, 
429;  Department  of  Education,  429;  Mutual  Messages  and 
Field  Photos,  430,  431,  432,  434,  435;  M.  I.  A.  Activities 
Point  the  Way  to  Progress  in  East  Central  States,  Bassett 
T.  Wright,  431;  Missionaries  at  Fort  Sumter,  Merrill  J. 
Wood,   432;   Brigham   City   Honors   Brigham   Young,   434. 

The  Protestors  of  Christendom — Part  V\  continued 

____ James  L.  Barker  396 

The  Last  of  the  "Dickens'  Boys" .Helen  Miller  Lehman  .403 

Slavery  Caused  an  Indian  War Carlton  Culmsee  406 

Cayuga's  "Other  Wise  Man" 

Joseph  Williams  and  John  Farr  Larsen  410 

Why  I  Do  Not  Smoke Dorothy  Dyer  Akers  413 

Exploring  the  Universe,  Franklin  S.  Harris,  Jr.,  388;  On  the 
Book  Rack,  418;  Homing:  Summer  Reading,  419;  Here's 
How,  419;  Index  to  Advertisers,  442;  Your  Page  and  Ours, 

The  Training  of  Youth John  A.  Widtsoe  416 

M,  L  A.  June  Conference Richard  L.  Evans  416 

A  Rising  Vote  Against  Liquor  and  Tobacco 

Richard  L.  Evans  417 

A  Woman's  Sphere Marba  C.  Josephson  417 

Beckoning  Roads — Chapter  6 Dorothy  C*  Robinson  398 

The  Phantom  Herd — An  Historical  Narrative 

Robert  M.  Hyatt  409 

The  Color  of  Courage Beth  Harmon  402 

Frontispiece:  The  Wedding  Journey,  Zara  Sabin,  390;  Poetry 
Page  414;  Contrast,  Gilean  Douglas,  432;  Which  Way, 
Little  Girl,  Agnes  Just  Reid,  436;  The  Creek,  Luacine  Clark 
Fox,  438;  Scriptural  Crossword  Puzzle,  446. 

JhsL  Qwsih. 

The  Mormon  Battalion  Monument,  pictured  on  the  cover,  stands  on  the  grounds  of 
the  Utah  State  Capitol  in  Salt  Lake  City.     The  silhouette  study  against  the 
background  of  a  western  sunset  is  by  Jeano  Orlando. 


(DoQfoiL  Jinow— 

Where  the  headquarters  of  the  new 

West   German   Mission  are? 

Page   389 

What  Church  personality  recently 
was  honored  by  a  distinguished 
American   University? Page    387 

How  mental  work  affects  physical 
muscles? Page  388 

How  youth  may  best  serve  its  "own 
generation"? Page  392 

What  is  the  "ideal"  Book  of  Mor- 
mon Geography?  Page  394 

Through  what  changes  the  Christian 
church  passed  after  the  death  of 
Constantine? Page  396 

Under  what  circumstances  Lorenzo 
Snow  undertook  his  "tithing  mis- 
sion" to  St.  George? Page  400 

What  Mormon  boy  was  a  protege 
of  Charles  Dickens? Page  403 

Who  wrote  the  Tabernacle  Choir 
theme  song?  Page  404 

How  the  slavery  issue  precipitated 
a  crisis  in  Utah? Page  406 

If  camels  are  found  on  American 
deserts?  Page  409 

Who  was  "Cayuga's  Other  Wise 
Man"?    . Page   410 

What  missionary  methods  are  em- 
ployed in  the  Netherlands? 

Page    412 

What  one  college  girl's  reasons  are 
for  not  smoking? Page  413 

At  what  international  conferences 
President  Clark  is  representing  the 
United  States? Page  415 

Who  is  promoting  a  state  park  at 
Nauvoo?  Page  415 

What  Mormon  basketball  team  won 

a    European   championship? 

Page   415 

What  books  are  recommended  for 
summer  reading? Page  420 

How  "visual  aids"  have  succeeded 
in  the  California  Mission?_.Page  421 

What  questions  have  arisen  con- 
cerning Melchizedek  Priesthood 
committees?  Page  422 

What  Priesthood  social  activities  are 
recommended?  Page  424 

How  Brigham  City  has  honored 
Brigham  Young Page  435 


50  North  Main  Street,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

Copyright  1938,  by  the  Young  Men's  Mutual 
Improvement  Association  Corporation  of  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 
All  rights  reserved.  Subscription  price,  $2.00 
a  year,   in   advance;  20c  Single  Copy. 

Entered  at  the  Post  Office,  Salt  Lake  City, 
Utah,  as  second-class  matter.  Acceptance  for 
mailing  at  special  rate  of  postage  provided 
for  in  section  1103,  Act  of  October,  1917, 
authorized  July  2,  1918. 

The  Improvement  Era  is  not  responsible 
for  unsolicited  manuscripts,  but  welcomes  con- 
tributions. All  manuscripts  must  be  accompanied 
by  sufficient  postage  for  delivery  and  return. 


Bates  College  Confers 
Honorary  Degree  on 
Frank  W.  Asper 

Tabernacle  Organist  Called 
East  to  Receive  Signal  Honor 

"Crank  W.  Asper,  Salt  Lake  Taber- 
nacle  organist  and  one  of  the  West's 
successful  musicians,  who  has  steadily 
won  acclaim  outside  his  home  state,  was 
called  east  in  early  June  to  have  con- 
ferred upon  him  an  honorary  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Music,  by  historic  Bates 
College  in  Lewiston,  Maine.  Mr.  Asper 
won  further  plaudits  in  his  capacity  as 
an  artist  when,  on  June  12,  he  played 
the  dedicatory  program  on  a  new  organ 
installed  at  the  College.  He  was  called 
across  the  continent  to  be  the  first 
artist  to  play  this  wonderful  instrument 
in  one  of  America's  oldest  and  finest 

The  new  organ  was  presented  to 
Bates  College  by  Arthur  Curtiss  James, 
internationally  known  New  York  finan- 
cier and  music  patron.  Bates  College, 
founded  in  1864,  is  one  of  America's 
foremost  educational  institutions  and  is 
well  known  for  its  debating  teams. 
Robert  Frost,  poet;  Paul  Claudel,  for- 
mer French  Ambassador  to  the  United 
States;  and  Mark  Sullivan,  political 
commentator,  have  received  honorary 
degrees  from  this  college.  With  all 
the  east  to  honor,  it  remained  for  a 
western  artist  to  be  called  to  play  the 

During  a  mission  to  Germany,  be- 
cause of  his  interpretation  and  knowl- 
edge of  the  classics,  Frank  Asper  was 
able  to  circulate  freely  and  proclaim 
the  Gospel  to  several  opera  stars,  mem- 
bers of  symphony  orchestras,  and  some 
concert  artists,  and  was  invited  to  play 
for  them,  as  well  as  being  welcome  at 
many  prominent  functions.  After  his 
mission,  he  studied  in  Berlin:  piano'  with 
Jonas,  and  theory  with  Klatte,  and  also 
played  in  an  opera  orchestra  under 
Von  Fielitz. 

After  the  outbreak  of  the  World 
War,  he  returned  to  Salt  Lake  City, 
and,  in  1915,  gave  up  a  large  class  of 
pupils  to  study  in  Boston  because  of 
the  need  he  felt  to  further  advance  in 
the  theoretical  subjects,  which  he  pur- 
sued under  Elson;  he  also'  studied  organ 
under  Humphrey  at  this  time.  Piano 
training  was  pursued  under  DeVoto 
and  Buonamici.  He  was  also  engaged 
to  train  a  boy  choir  in  a  suburb  of  Bos- 
ton, later  relinquishing  this  for  a  post 
as  organist  on  the  fashionable  south 
shore  at  Cohasset,  in  an  historic  church 
which  was  built  before  the  Revolution. 
During  the  time  he  was  teaching  at 
the  New  England  Conservatory  of 
Music  he  did  not  neglect  his  Church 
duties,  and  was  counselor  in  the  Bos- 
ton Branch  for  four  years.  In  1920 
the  newly-organized  L.  D.  S.  School  of 
Music  beckoned  and  he  returned  to 
Salt  Lake  City. 

Mr.  Asper  holds  the  distinction  of 
being    a    "Fellow"    in    the    American 






cowboy  of 
1937.  Yes, 
those  are 
LEVI'S  he's 

There's  only  one  best  in  any  field.  It  may  be  a 
man  .  . .  like  Champion  Cowboy  Bowman.  It  may 
be  a  product . . .  like  LEVI'S — champion  overalls 
of  the  West  for  80  years.  Champions  in  comfort 
and  wear.  Champions,  again,  in  giving  you 
this  new,  exclusive  protection  . 

ONLY  LEVI'S  have  these  patented, 
back-pocket  rivets  that  WON'T 
have  the  exclusive  easy  fit  that  WON'T 
PULL  OR  BIND.  Cut  from  heaviest 
denim  loomed.  And  so  strongly  made 
we  guarantee:  "A  NEW  PAIR  FREE 


1.  Two  horse  brand  leather  label 

2.  Oilcloth  ticket 

3.  Red  tab  sewed  in  back-pocket  seam 






LEVI  STRAUSS  &  CO.,  Los  Angeles,  SAN  FRANCISCO,  Frankfort,  Ind. 


Guild  of  Organists,  and  is  also  Dean 
of  the  Utah  Chapter.  He  is  one  of  the 
few  western  representatives  ever  in- 
vited to  play  at  a  convention  of  the 
American  Guild  of  Organists,  which  he 
did  on  the  large  municipal  organ  at 
Memphis,  winning  great  acclaim.  He 
has  played  for  many  notables,  among 
them,  three  presidents  of  the  United 
States,  and  the  Crown  Prince  of 
Sweden.  Other  places  where  he  has 
appeared  have  been  at  the  University 
of  Illinois;  University  of  Chicago; 
Carnegie  Institute  at  Pittsburgh;  at  the 
large  Lewis  and  Clark  High  School  at 

Spokane,  Washington;  in  Pueblo;  and 
the  Third  Baptist  Church  of  St.  Louis. 
He  was  official  organist  at  the  Sesqui- 
Centennial  Exposition  in  Philadelphia; 
played  in  St.  Vincent's  Church  at  Los 
Angeles,  and  many  others. 


7th  &  BROADWAY 


J  Double  Bed  Choice  (Double  or  Twins) 

$2.50  $3.00  $3." 

FRANK  R.  WISH0N,  President 


'TWO  PERSONS      -      ONE  CHARGE" 


£xpjb%uv£  JJtiL  lAmvohAJL 


A  dog  can  hear  higher  notes  than 
***  man  and  there  is  good  evidence 
that  pheasants  can  hear  distant  gunfire 
when  human  ears  cannot  detect  it, 


HP  HE  worm  called  Brubea  protandrica 

A  is  male  in  autumn  and  winter,  fe- 
male in  spring,  and  neuter  in  summer. 

A  new  flourescent  electric  lamp  has 
"*""*  been  announced  with  an  efficiency 
200  times  that  of  present-day  filament 
lamps.  It  differs  from  ordinary  lamps 
in  that  ultra-violet  is  converted  to  vis- 
ible light  by  a  flourescent  coating  on 
the  walls. 

Cheep  shearing  by  chemicals  is  being 
^  performed  in  the  Soviet  Wool  Lab- 
oratory. By  giving  single  doses  of 
thallium  compounds  the  sheep  shed 
their  wool,  leaving  them  naked  as 
though  they  had  been  shorn.  If  the 
dose  was  small  the  fine  wool  came  out, 
if  larger  both  coarse  and  fine  fibers 

■pOR  each  pound  of  vegetable  matter 
■*-  produced  by  a  plant,  on  the  aver- 
age of  about  40  gallons  of  water  are 


A  silent  piano  and  a  silent  violin  have 
**"*  been  invented  to  be  used  in  prac- 
ticing. The  playing  can  be  heard  only 
by  the  pupil  and  teacher  through  ear- 

HPhe  muscles  in  the  arms  and  neck  of 
■*•  a  person  doing  mental  work  get 
tenser  and  tenser  as  the  work  becomes 
more  difficult,  a  scientist  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Indiana  found. 

Tn  Peary  Land  at  the  north  end  of 
*  Greenland,  the  most  northerly  land 
on  earth,  there  are  bees  and  butterflies 
in  the  rolling  meadows  of  flowers  and 

♦ ■ — 

/"^ontrary  to  popular  belief,  wolves 
^  don't  attack  and  kill  people,  nor 
do  they  travel  in  hunting  packs,  except 
that  cubs  may  travel  with  the  parents 
for  the  first  year.  Vilhjalmur  Stef- 
ansson  and  the  U.  S.  Biological  Survey 
have  traced  such  accounts  down  and 
found  them  to  be  fictitious. 


"Decent  research  on  the  brain  has 
A^-  disclosed  two  interesting  things. 
Large  portions  of  the  important 
frontal  lobes  of  the  brain  can  be  re- 

moved surgically  without  apparent 
damage  to  the  intelligence.  No  signs 
of  depression  or  loss  of  abstract  be- 
havior were  discovered  in  such  pa- 
tients. The  brain  has  a  definite  "heat 
center"  that  responds  to  heating  by 
speeding  up  breathing,  starting  per- 
spiration and  other  means  for  cooling 
the  body.  Experiments  with  cats 
found  this  region  to  be  partly  on  the 
underside  of  the  front  part  of  the  brain, 
and  partly  on  the  underside  of  the  mid- 


7]Sa  "Caterpillar"  distributor  for  many 
years,  this  organization  has  a  wealth 

of  experience  with  all  types  of  power  ap- 
plications— tractor  and  stationary  engine 
through  shaft,  belt,  and  electric  generator. 
Let  us  apply  this  experience  to  your  prob- 
lem. We'll  survey  your  needs  and  give  you 
exact  figures  on  what  you  may  expect 
to  save  with  "Caterpillar"  Diesel  Power. 

Distributors  of 


Diesel  Engines 

Track-Type  Tractors 

Road  Machinery 



25  peakJ  ofi  DexMee 

Headquarters  -  245   West   South   Temple,  Salt  Lake  City 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     1938 



1481  So.  State 

9  CARL  W.  BUEHNER,  General  Contractor 




















i  Furnished  Throughout  from  the 

x  Complete  Stock 



WM.  E.  NELSON,  Architect 



Chooses  colorful  Mountain  Red  Ruff  Brick 
Manufactured  by 


3180  So.  1 1th  East— Hyland  630 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 

We  Congratulate  the  Ken- 
Ray  Auto  Court  on  Their 
Selection  of  N.  O.  Nelson 
Plumbing  Fixtures. 

Plumbing  Installed  by 


1497  So.  5th  East 

Hy.  1611 







Furnished  by 


475  West  6th  South— Was.  4086 

We   Furnished   the   Paint   and 

Enamel  for  this  High  Class  Auto 



992  So.  Main  Street 





Applied  by 


(Certified  applicator  Old  American  Roofs) 
1865   So.  3th  East  Phone  Hy.   3057 


Ask  for  UNITED 

Sun  tested  and  water-proof 

Are  adapted  to  this  climate,  cover  bet- 
ter and  are  weather  resisting.    Large 
variety  oi  beautiful  colors. 


339  So.  State  Was.  1822 




134  East  Broadway 


Good  flooring  and  all  lumber 



Elias  Morris  &  Sons  Co. 

In  July  Moving  to 
250  East  So.  Temple 

^^  WILLIAMS     ^g*\ 


208  W.  17  S.  Hy.  6868 


153  W.  N.  Temple  Was.  1795 

<  ><=>:  ><=x  >cr><  o;  xrx  >o<  xrx  xr*  xzx  xzx  >o<  >o<  X3XX3*xixx=*  ><=>:>■ 


2248  So.  8th  East — Hy.  550 


<X=X  X=><XZX  X=X>C=><Q 



Photo   by   George  Strebet. 

dOuv  Wadding  QojuAnsu^ 

r^REARY  day  by  dreary  day, 

Jouncing,  jolting,  mile  on  mile, 
Erect  she  sat  in  her  dusty  gray, 
Fixed  and  stiff  as  her  weary  smile. 

•"Phey  traveled  light — it  was  their  all- 
Tennyson's  poems,  a  Bible,  a  few 
Patchwork  quilts  and  a  Paisley  shawl, 
Copper  kettle,  and  gown  of  blue; 

Che  and  her  husband,  this  firm  man, 
Eager  and  restless,  fired  with  zeal, 
Joined  a  westward  caravan, 

Stirred  by  the  song  of  a  creaking  wheel. 

Youth  and  strength  and  a  will  to  work; 

Deeply  rooted,  a  trust  in  God, 
Trust  to  be  tried  in  the  mud  and  murk, 
Clinging  fast  to  the  Iron  Rod. 

]"  ONG  he  had  labored  in  shop  and  at  forge 

Fashioning  felloe  and  axle  with  care, 
The  need  to  be  gone  his  daily  scourge; 
To  knit  and  sew,  her  womanly  share. 

P)ay  after  day  in  the  heat  and  the  dust, 

Never  a  murmur  or  secret  sigh, 
Fording  a  stream  or  facing  a  gust 

Of  sifting  sand  as  the  wind  whirled  by. 

'M'ight  after  night  in  a  bed  on  the  ground, 

Weary  body,  too  tired  to  rest; 
Sickness  and  death  with  its  lonely  mound, 

Hunger  and  thirst  marked  their  way  to  the  West. 

TThus  was  her  wedding  journey  made 

Over  desolate  steep  and  plainland  drear; 
Little  new  bride  all  unafraid, 
Partner  indeed  for  a  Pioneer! 

$(Vwl  SabifL 





IT  is  a  great  joy  to  me,  always,  to  meet  with  the  young 
people.  It  is  a  very  difficult  matter  for  me  to  real- 
ize that  I  am  what  they  commonly  call  a  very  old 
man.  I  believe  my  spirit  is  as  youthful  as  it  ever 
was.  I  enjoy  mingling  with  youth;  I  enjoy  playing 
with  them;  I  enjoy  the  sports  of  youth.  True,  I  cannot 
take  as  active  a  part  in  some  of  the  athletic  sports  as  I 
would  like  to,  but  I  am  very  happy  with  youth,  and 
to  me  the  fact  that  the  spirit  apparently  does  not  grow 
old  is  one  of  the  evidences  of  the  immortality  of  the 
soul.  I  remember  reading  of  ex-President  Adams  being 
met  one  day  by  a  friend  who  said:  "How  is  President 
Adams  today?" 

"Oh,"  he  said,  "President  Adams  was  never  better 
in  his  life,  never  younger,  never  in  finer  condition,  but 
this  house  he  is  living  in  is  becoming  rather  old  and 
he  is  hoping  for  a  better  one  in  the  near  future." 

I  hope  to  keep  that  spirit  of  youth.  I  hope  to  feel  as 
much  interested  in  the  next  ten  years,  which  I  hope  to 
stay  with  you,  in  the  Mutual  Improvement  cause  as  I 
have  ever  been.  In  fact,  I  believe  that  the  Lord  does 
grant  unto  us  according  to  our  desires,  as  recorded  in 
the  29th  chapter  of  the  Book  of  Alma  in  the  Book  of 
Mormon,  whether  "good  or  evil,  life  or  death,  joy  or 
remorse  of  conscience",  that  we  are  in  very  deed  the 
architects  of  our  own  lives,  so  to  speak,  and  not  only 
the  architects  but  the  builders,  and  that  if  we  have 
ambition  to  do  more  and  to  accomplish  more,  God  gives 
us  the  ability  through  our  diligence.  I  am  a  very  firm 
believer  in  the  teaching  of  James  that  "faith  without 
works  is  dead,  as  the  body  without  the  spirit  is  dead," 
and  of  course  we  all  know  that  the  body  is  of  no  value 
to  us  when  the  spirit  leaves.  We  retain  the  body  only 
a  few  days  until  we  bury  it. 

Now  what  I  desire  and  the  ambition  of  my  life  is  that 
from  now  until  my  end  comes  I  can  accomplish  more 
year  by  year  than  I  have  accomplished  in  the  past, 
for  the  reason  that  I  should  have  and  I  believe  I  do 
have  a  greater  comprehension  of  the  duties  and  the 
responsibilities  that  rest  upon  me  and  that  rest  upon  all 
of  us  than  I  had  many  years  ago.  I  am  grateful  beyond 
expression  that  as  the  years  come  and  go  my  love  for 
this  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ  that  has  again  been  restored 
to  the  earth  is  stronger,  and  that  there  is  a  greater 
desire  in  my  heart  to  labor  for  the  spread  of  truth  and 
the  building  up  of  the  Church  of  Christ  here  upon  the 
earth  today  than  there  has  been  ever  before,  and  I 
believe  that  ought  to  be  the  ambition  of  each  and  every 
one  of  us. 

I  believe  unless  we  have  ambition  to  accomplish 
things  and  to  do  things  that  we  amount  to  but  very 
little  in  the  battle  of  life.  I  know  of  nothing  at  the 
present  time  that  seems  to  me  sadder  than  to  find  the 
number  of  our  people  who  are  losing  the  spirit  of  in- 
tegrity and  devotion  and  ambition  to  do  things.  It 
seems  to  me  all  wrong.  Every  individual  should  have 
a  desire  to  grow  and  increase  in  capacity  and  in  ability 
to  do  things.  Certainly  by  mere  exertion  of  the  will, 
by  mere  desire,  we  accomplish  nothing;  we  must  put 
with  that  desire  the  labor  to  accomplish  the  things  we 

desire.  I  am  sure  that  a  young  man  who  is  perfectly 
satisfied  with  what  he  is  doing,  although  he  may  be 
doing  very  little,  and  has  no  ambition  to  do  more,  will 
stand  still;  but  I  am  convinced  that  each  and  every  indi- 
vidual can  improve  from  day  to  day,  from  year  to  year, 
and  have  greater  capacity  to  do  things  as  the  years 
come  and  the  years  go.  I  believe  in  that  with  all  my 

I  rejoice  in  the  splendid  progress  of  our  young  peo- 
ple. I  am  sure  there  is  no  other  place  in  the  United 
States  where  a  body  of  young  people  could  be  gathered 
together,  such  as  I  am  facing  here  today,  who  would 
pledge  themselves,  as  you  have  done,  to  live  one  of  the 
laws  of  God  for  the  benefit  of  mankind.  I  can  think 
of  no  finer,  more  splendid  statement  against  the  men 
who  are  working  today  to  destroy  the  vigor  of  body 
and  mind  of  people  by  increasing  the  sale  of  liquor 
and  tobacco  than  is  contained  in  the  Word  of  Wisdom. 
The  Lord  says:  "I  have  warned  you,  and  forewarn 
you,  by  giving  unto  you  this  word  of  wisdom,"  because 
of  "evils  and  designs  which  do  and  will  exist  in  the 
hearts  of  conspiring  men  in  the  last  days." 

I  read  that  in  one  of  the  eastern  sections  they  refused 
to  rent  a  hall  to  our  Church  for  a  Gold  and  Green  Ball. 
They  said  they  couldn't  afford  to  have  a  lot  of  young 
people  spoiling  their  napkins  and  table-cloths  with  their 
cigaret  smoking.  Our  people  told  them  there  would 
be  no  cigarets,  and  to  have  several  hundred  young 
people,  there  without  cigarets  made  an  everlasting 
impression.  I  have  heard  many  comments  on  the  fine 
entertainment  which  our  choir  gave  in  honor  of  its 
former  president,  David  A.  Smith.  To  see  this  great 
ballroom  of  the  Utah  Hotel  filled  and  the  room  adjoining 
it  also  out  in  the  mezzanine  floor,  and  not  see  a  single 
cigaret,  why  it  made  a  profound  impression  on  the 
people!  And  I  have  attended  other  gatherings  of  the 
same  kind.  Each  and  every  one  of  you,  my  dear  young 
friends,  carry  on  your  shoulders  the  reputation  of  this 

Everyone  of  us  has  in  our  power  to  preach  this 
Gospel,  and  to  preach  it  not  by  word  but  by  example. 
I  sent  out  over  six  thousand  copies  of  a  little  pamphlet 
during  the  Christmas  holidays,  and  I  found  one  of  the 
items  I  published  says  it  better  than  I  can  say  it,  viz: 

And  now  there  is  one  more  lesson  for  us  to  learn,  the 
climax  of  all  the  rest;  namely,  to  make  a  personal  application 
to  ourselves  of  everything  which  we  know.  Unless  we 
master  this  lesson,  and  act  on  it,  other  lessons  are  virtually 
useless  and  thus  robbed  of  their  essential  glory.  The  only 
living  end  or  aim  of  everything  we  experience,  of  every  truth 
we  are  taught,  is  the  practical  use  we  make  of  it  for  the 
enrichment  of  the  soul,  the  attuning  of  the  thoughts  and 
actions,  the  exaltation  of  life.  .  .  .  When  we  do  what  we 
know,  then  first  does  it  put  on  vital  luster  and  become  di- 
vinely orecious. — William  R.  Algers. 

The  Gospel  is  true.  May  God  help  us  to  live  it  is  my 
humble  prayer  and  I  ask  it  in  the  name  of  our  Redeemer. 
Amen. — From  President  Grant's  address  at  the  opening 
session  of  the  43rc?  Annual  Conference  of  the  Mutual 
Improvement  Associations,  in  the  Tabernacle,  Salt  Lake 
City,  Friday  morning,  June  10,  1938. 




Of  the  Council  of  the  Twelve 

Paul,  the  Apostle,  speaking  in 
Antioch,  seat  of  Roman  glory, 
summarized  the  life  of  David, 
great  king  of  Israel,  in  eloquent,  re- 
sounding words: 

For  David,  having  served  his  own  gen- 
eration by  the  will  of  God,  fell  on  sleep 
and  was  laid  unto  his  fathers. 

This  was  the  highest  praise  that 
the  learned  Apostle  could  give  to 
Israel's  foremost  king.  It  is  today 
the  greatest  encomium  that  can  be 
spoken  of  man  or  institution.  It  is 
also  the  most  searching  test  of  the 
worthiness  of  personal  or  institu- 
tional life.  To  serve  one's  "own 
generation  by  the  will  of  God"  re- 
mains the  truest  measure  of  life's 
value  and  the  safest  guide  to  human 

You  who  now  leave  halls  of 
learning  will  be  judged  in  life  by 
Paul's  test  of  service  to  your  "own 
generation."  If  you  heed  the  an- 
cient formula,  you  may  safely  ex- 
pect, in  the  midst  of  life's  storms,  to 
find  honor,  love,  joy,  and  the  inward 
satisfaction  that  "passeth  all  under- 

You  may  be  few  in  number  in  a 
populous  world  filled  with  countless 
problems;  you  may  be  as  voices  in 
the  wilderness;  yet  your  voices  must 
be  heard  in  opposition  to  the  dema- 
gogue, the  charlatan,  the  office- 
seeker,  and  all  who  would  distort 
truth  for  selfish  ends;  you  must  be 
as  crusaders  and  reformers  in  the 
cause  of  righteousness.  Your  edu- 

cation  has  given  you  power  beyond 
your  fellows;  positions  of  trust  and 
influence  will  be  yours.  If  you  per- 
sistently and  continuously,  through- 
out your  lives,  speak  for  truth  in  the 
full  spirit  of  understanding,  victory 
will  be  yours.  Men,  in  the  end,  pre- 
fer good  to  evil.  I  warn  you  only 
that  all  change  and  all  reform  come 
best  by  evolution  rather  than  by 

The  days  to  come  will  bring  their 
own  opportunities  for  service,  but 
three  great  problems  of  today  and 
tomorrow  appear  like  great  shadows 
upon  the  veil  of  the  future,  which 
you  must  help  solve,  if  you  would 
serve  your  "own  generation." 

First,  there  is  the  call  of  educa- 
tion. You  will  be  required  to  shape 
for  more  perfect  service  the  power- 
ful instrument  for  man's  improve- 
ment known  as  the  system  of  public 
education.  America  has  become  a 
school-trained  nation.  From  early 
childhood,  into  maturity,  American 
children  go  to  school.  The  home 
and  the  Church  has  retreated  before 
the  schoolmaster.  Parents  surrender 
their  children  to  the  school  in  their 
formative  and  adolescent  years. 
The  Church  too  often  confines  itself 
to  Sunday  guidance  for  people  who 
live  seven  days  a  week.  Our  nation 
is  being  moulded  by  our  system  of 
public  education. 

Since  our  schools  possess  such 
power,  then,  through  them,  neces- 
sary reforms  and  developments  may 
largely  be  accomplished.  A  man  is 
not  likely  to  depart  from  the  teach- 
ings of  his  youth.  Personal  and 
community   ideals,   with   their   eco- 

This  article  contains  the  message 
of  the  Baccalaureate  sermon  de- 
livered by  Dr.  Widtsoe  to  the 
U.  S.  A.  C.  graduating  class  on 
Sunday,  June  5,  1938.  In  speaking 
of  his  text,  "Serve  Your  Own  Gen- 
eration," Dr.  Widtsoe,  on  that  oc- 
casion, added:  "By  this  test  w»e  de- 
light today  to  honor  the  institution 
from  which  you  are  about  to  gradu- 
ate. Happily,  during  its  half  century 
of  existence,  from  the  first  to  the 
present  board  of  trustees  and  faculty, 
from  President  Sanborn  to  President 
Peterson,  the  Utah  State  Agricultural 
College  has  diligently  and  intelli- 
gently served  its  'own  generation.* 
The  future  of  the  college,  likewise, 
will  be  measured  by  its  earnest  and 
honest  effort  to  serve  its  'own  gen- 

nomic,  social,  and  religious  implica- 
tions, should  be  set  before  our  chil- 
dren, if  American  ways  of  thinking 
are  to  be  preserved,  and  our  great 
country  shall  fulfill  its  possible  des- 
tiny for  human  good.  The  three 
R's  must  yield  a  part  of  their  ancient 
field  to  the  emotional  and  spiritual 
needs  of  man.  When  our  schools 
become  firm  and  fearless  allies  of 
home  and  Church,  America  will 
soon  shake  off  the  rags  of  vicious 
practices  with  which  human  selfish- 
ness has  clothed  her. 

American  education  cannot  be 
made  strong  unless  schools 
move  nearer,  in  their  instruction,  to 
the  daily  needs  of  man.  It  is  well  to 
speak  of  culture;  but  culture  is  but 
a  manner  of  life,  touching  all  that  a 
man  does.  The  dignifying  of  the 
necessary  tasks  of  life,  in  the  light 
of  the  world's  heritage  of  experience, 
is  the  better  objective  of  schools,  if 
we  really  desire  a  happy  nation. 

The  sisterhood  of  land  grant  col- 
leges has  led  out  in  this  endeavor 
to  the  blessing  of  the  land.  How- 
ever, even  they  are  threatened  with 
a  cultural  paralysis,  which  rates  pure 
book  learning,  acquiring  the 
thoughts  of  the  wise  ones  of  the 
ages,  as  being  all  sufficient,  and  mak- 
ing unnecessary  an  intellectual  and 
practical  acquaintanceship  with  the 
work  men  must  do  daily  for  their 
bread.  A  body  of  men,  eminent  in 
the  nation,  has  recently  arisen  to 
urge     the     educational     return     of 




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uplift,  jul  sxjwwjmixL  bsdl&Jwuuni,  amL 
in.  jmsfwdL  unpJwvsjmsLni, 

America  to  the  pleasant  ease  of  the 
slumbering,  classical  education.  Hid- 
den within  the  plea  is  the  dangerous 
and  incorrect  doctrine  that  educa- 
tion through  the  hand  is  inferior  to 
that  through  the  eye.  Our  near 
century  of  experience  with  school 
laboratories  and  shops  refutes  this 
claim.  Thinly  disguised,  the  plea 
is  for  an  educational  aristocracy  in 
our  free  land.  The  course  of  history 
is  evidence  that  no  offering  could  be 
fraught  with  more  evil  in  a  world 
hungry  for  light. 

The  assertion  is  made,  with  which 
we  all  agree,  that  men  are  not  alike 
in  their  inborn  powers.  That  pre- 
sents only  a  problem  of  school  ar- 
rangement and  administration.  Let 
the  schools  organize  and  present 
existing  knowledge  to  meet  the 
needs  of  the  variety  of  human  gifts. 
But  allow  all  people  to  advance  as 
far  as  they  can  with  their  native 

Honor  be  to  the  few  institutions 
which  have  resolutely  set  about  to 
develop  respect  for  physical  toil 
along  with  mental  effort;  which 
have  even  divided  the  day  or  the 
week,  so  that  a  student  may  earn  his 
way  through  college  by  skillful 
labor,  and  actually  receive  credit 
therefor!  Such  institutions  may 
break  a  lesser  academic  regulation, 
but  they  conform  to  a  higher  human 
law.  Above  all,  if  we  would  have 
peace  and  plenty  in  our  land,  com- 
mand our  schools,  which  are  but  our 
servants,  from  the  first  year  to  the 
last,  to  draw  nearer  to  farm  and 
shop,  to  store  and  home,  as  well  as 
to  office  and  courtroom — make  pro- 
fessions of  all  necessary  pursuits  of 

In  close  association  with  this 
thought  comes  another.  Out  of  what 
shrine  of  hidden  and  doubtful  wis- 
dom came  the  plan,  unfitting  in  our 
day,  to  allow  children  to  roam  about 

aimlessly,  helplessly,  freed  from 
duty,  during  the  three  or  more  long 
months  of  summer  vacation?  If  the 
school,  with  our  consent,  has  invad- 
ed the  earlier  fields  of  home  and 
church,  why  should  it  not  carry  on 
throughout  the  year  with  such  free- 
dom as  proper  recreation  demands? 
Boys  and  girls  by  untold  thousands 
suffer  in  our  land  for  want  of  suit- 
ably guided,  productive  occupation 
during  the  months  of  vacation.  Ill- 
ness alone  should  justify  idleness. 
This  condition  is  probably  the  fault 
of  the  citizen  taxpayers  who  have 
not  instructed  the  schools  properly 
in  their  duties. 

Another  thought  lingers.  The 
love  of  truth  must  be  fostergd  if 
men  are  to  travel  the  road  to  happy, 
useful  life.  Unless  you  have  learned 
to  love  truth  your  college  course  has 
been  in  vain.  Almost  the  prime  pur- 
pose of  college  training  is  to  enable 
men  to  distinguish  between  that 
which  the  powers  of  men  have  found 
to  be  true,  and  the  inferences, 
changing  with  increasing  knowl- 
edge, that  are  drawn  from  such  facts 
of  observation.  In  college  halls, 
man's  interpretations  of  observed 
facts  are  sometimes  presented,  by 
uninformed,  biased  or  dishonest 
teachers,  in  the  guise  of  established 
facts.  That  is  the  gravest  kind  of 
dishonesty.  In  the  world  of  affairs 
this  danger  is  ever  present.  A  man 
or  group  of  men  may  set  up  a  series 
of  dicta,  unsupported  or  incompletely 
supported  by  facts,  and  build  there- 
on governmental  or  commercial 
structures  to  the  grief  of  all  con- 
cerned. Men  must  cling  to  truth  at 
whatever  cost.  That  must  be  the 
constant,  most  important  teaching 
of  the  schools. 

I  cannot  refrain  from  adding  that, 
within  school  circles,  the  responsi- 
bility      for       needed      educational 

changes  rests  upon  the  institutions 
of  collegiate  rank.  They  are  the 
pacesetters  for  the  high  schools  and 
elementary  schools. 

Would  you  serve  your  genera- 
tion? Here,  coming  voters,  speak- 
ers, writers,  trustees  of  schools  and 
colleges,  lies  a  mighty  opportunity 
to  serve  your  "own  generation,"  in 
directing  and  redirecting  American 
education  for  greater  American  se»- 
vice  and  human  good. 

The  second  problem  which  you 
must  help  solve  in  life  is  man's  call 
for  economic  emancipation,  a  call 
heard  around  the  world  and  stirring 
the  nations  to  their  foundations. 

You  will  be  called  upon  to  help 
provide  permanent  means  for  sup- 
plying every  man  born  into  the 
world,  in  return  for  his  best  efforts, 
the  necessaries  of  life:  food,  cloth- 
ing and  shelter  as  well  as  the  com- 
mon luxuries  of  life.  No  longer  can 
that  duty  be  ignored;  for  every 
worthy  man  is  entitled  to  these 
things.  In  that  respect  all  men  are 
or  should  be  equal. 

During  the  few  centuries  of  our 
modern  civilization,  the  common 
man  has  been  obliged  to  battle  for 
freedom  of  thought  and  speech,  and 
for  political  equality.  These  pre- 
cious possessions  are  now  his.  To- 
day we  are  in  the  midst  of  the  com- 
mon man's  battle  for  economic  suffi- 
ciency. We  cannot  well  serve  our 
"own  generation"  unless  we  use  our 
training  to  help  secure  greater  eco- 
nomic security  for  all  worthy  men, 
and  thereby  win  peace  and  content- 
ment for  the  whole  world.  As  men 
find  economic  contentment,  war- 
fare will  vanish  from  the  earth.  The 
powers  of  our  civilization  must  make 
more  available  for  humankind  the 
material  resources  of  earth.  Too 
many  of  our  fellowmen  suffer  for 
want  of  food,  clothing,  and  shelter. 
That  does  not  bring  about  social 
welfare.  The  earth  offers  an 
abundance  for  the  support  of  all. 
Wealth  comes  from  the  intelligent 
application  of  human  labor  to  the 
natural  resources  of  earth.  You 
have  been  taught  how  this  may  be 
done.  Your  knowledge  must  be  ap- 
plied to  this  problem  for  humanity's 
sake;  then,  many  will  call  you  bless- 
ed. In  this  way  you  can  greatly 
serve  your  "own  generation."  I  am 
convinced  that  the  God  of  Heaven, 
a  living  Father,  desires  that  the 
{Continued  on  page  444) 

Zarahemla/  What  glorious 
thoughts  are  brought  to  the 
mind  of  any  Latter-day  Saint 
by  the  name  of  this  great  metropolis 
of  the  ancient  Nephites.  Here  lived 
the  rulers  of  the  people  of  Nephi, 
from  Mosiah  to  Mormon.  From 
here  Moroni  and  the  brave  young 
general,  Teancum,  went  forth  to 
fight  the  degenerate  sons  of  Laman, 
led  by  the  wicked  Amalikiah. 
From  the  neighboring  land  of  Jer- 
shon,  Helaman  led  his  two  thou- 
sand "Little  Sons"  to  aid  the  sorely 
beset  Antipus.  Here  for  six  hun- 
dred years  a  great  people  lived, 
loved,  fought  their  battles  and  built 
a  great  civilization. 

To  any  Latter-day  Saint  these 
stories  are  as  familiar  as  if  they 
were  a  part  of  our  own  history,  yet 
the  place  of  Zarahemla  and  its 
surrounding  lands  remain  undeter- 
mined. What  satisfaction  if  we 
could  picture  the  Sidon  as  we  do 
the  Jordan,  a  definite  part  of  the 
earth,  could  visualize  the  battles 
fought  and  the  people  who  fought 
them  in  their  proper  settings.  Teach- 
ers of  the  Book  of  Mormon  know 
the  difficulties  of  presenting  to  a 
group  of  students  the  missionary 
journeys  of  Alma  and  the  Sons  of 
Mosiah  when  they  themselves  have 
only  a  vague  idea  of  the  lands  vis- 
ited, their  distance  from  each  other 
or  the  natural  barriers  encountered. 

It  has  often  been  said  that  little 
can  be  known  of  the  geography  of 
the  Book  of  Mormon  because  of  the 
great  changes  which  took  place  at 
the  time  of  the  Crucifixion.  Before 
accepting  this  theory,  remember 
that  while  much  of  the  record  is  a 
history  of  events  which  occurred 
before  the  meridian  of  time,  the 
historian,  Mormon,  lived  some  four 
hundred  years  after  that  time.  A 
careful  study  of  the  book  shows  that 
most  of  the  references  to  travel  or 
geography  are  phrased  in  his  words, 
not  those  of  the  original  authors. 
After  several  years  of  study  the 
author  is  convinced  that  the  Book 
of  Mormon  contains  sufficient  infor- 
mation for  the  student  to  construct 
a  map  of  Zarahemla  and  its  sur- 
rounding lands. 

As  the  River  Sidon  played  such 
an  important  part  in  the  history  of 
the  Nephites,  even  until  the  days  of 
Mormon,  and  was  one  great  physical 
feature  of  the  land  which  remained 
unchanged  during  this  period,  it  will, 





U)ithouL  cdtsimpttinq^  to  JoxxdjL  IPul  Aazr, 
o£  cudkwfL  otL  thsL  pte&swi-dcu^  map. 
JthsL  auihtfv  hs/UL  AuqqsLdiA.  cl  fea&ibJbL 
JojcJcrfiwL  ofL  namsUu  aruL  fdac&A-  with- 
MApJZCt  to  SJOfdfL  otPuUi,  £Uu  hsuvsurisudL 

A^any  individual  members  of 
the  Church,  in  private 
capacity,  have  expressed  their 
views  and  their  theories  con- 
cerning Book  of  Mormon  geog- 
raphy. Here  is  another  view 
— representing  merely  the  per- 
sonal beliefs  of  one  student  of 
the  subject  and  not  necessarily 
representing  the  views  of  the 
Church  or  its  members  gener- 
ally. But  this  presentation  is 
unique  in  that  it  does  not  at- 
tempt to  place  the  scene  of  ac- 
tion on  the  present-day  map, 
but  merely  indicates  the  rela- 
tive positions  of  one  place  with 
respect  to  another,  as  inferred 
from  a  study  of  the  text  itself. 

if  located,  form  a  sort  of  base  merid- 
ian for  the  construction  of  a  map. 

In  Alma  22:27  Mormon  gives  a 
description  of  the  land  ruled  over 
by  the  king  of  the  Lamanites  in  the 
year  90  B.  C.  He  speaks  of  a  "nar- 
row strip  of  wilderness,  which  ran 
from  the  sea  east  even  to  the  sea 
west,  and  round  about  on  the  bor- 
ders ...  of  the  wilderness  which  was 
on  the  north,  by  the  land  of  Zara- 
hemla, through  the  borders  of 
Manti,  by  the  head  of  the  river 
Sidon,  running  from  the  east  to- 
wards the  west — and  thus  were  the 
Nephites  and  Lamanites  divided." 
In  this  passage  we  learn  three  facts 
about  the  Sidon,  that  its  headwaters 
are  in  a  narrow  strip  of  wilderness 

which  runs  from  the  sea  on  the  east 
to  the  sea  on  the  west,  that  the  head 
of  the  Sidon  is  north  of  the  Land 
of  Nephi,  and  that  the  Land  of 
Manti  is  near  the  wilderness  in  which 
the  Sidon  has  its  source. 

Reading  from  Alma  16:7  we  find 
that  Zoram  and  his  sons  (Nephites 
coming  from  Zarahemla)  crossed 
the  Sidon  "with  their  armies,  and 
marched  away  beyond  the  borders 
of  Manti  into  the  south  wilderness, 
which  was  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river  Sidon."  About  74  B.  C.  the 
great  Nephi  general,  Moroni,  fought 
a  campaign  in  this  region.  Here  he 
ambushed  the  Lamanites  as  describ- 
ed in  Alma  43:25-44.  Paying  special 
attention  to  verses  31,  32  we  read, 
"Therefore,  he  divided  his  army  and 
brought  a  part  over  into  the  valley, 
and  concealed  them  on  the  east,  and 
on  the  south  of  the  hill  Riplah;  and 
the  remainder  he  concealed  in  the 
west  valley,  on  the  west  of  the  river 
Sidon,  and  so  down  into  the  borders 
of  the  land  Manti."  (Read  verses 
3 1  -42. )  From  these  passages  we  can 
be  sure  that  near  its  head  the  Sidon 
flowed  from  south  to  north. 

That  the  Sidon  still  flowed  from 
south  to  north  near  Zarahemla  is 
shown  by  Alma  2:15:  "The  Amli- 
cites  came  upon  the  hill  Amnihu, 
which  was  east  of  the  river  Sidon, 
which  ran  by  the  land  of  Zara- 
hemla." And  in  Alma  8:3  we  read 
that  Alma  went  from  Zarahemla  to 
the  "Land  of  Melek,  on  the  west  of 
the  river  Sidon." 

Apparently  the  Sidon  flowed  into 
the  sea  on  the  north  as  Alma  3:3 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     1938 

speaks  of  the  bones  of  the  slain 
Lamanites  whose  bodies  were 
thrown  into  the  river  as  being  "in 
the  depths  of  the  sea." 

To  begin  our  skeleton  map  it  is 
necessary  to  consider  the  land  of 
Nephi,  which  includes  in  its  general 
term  all  of  the  lands  held  by  the 
Lamanites  in  the  first  century  B.  C. 
Here  the  first  Nephite  city  was  built 
by  Nephi  the  son  of  Lehi.  Nephi 
5:6-17.  From  this  city  Mosiah 
went  forth  to  discover  the  land  of 
Zarahemla.  In  the  first  century 
B.  C.  it  was  ruled  by  the  Lamanites 
and  was  the  land  to  which  the  sons 
of  Mosiah  went  to  preach  the  Gos- 
pel. The  extent  of  this  Lamanite 
kingdom  is  outlined  by  Mormon  in 
Alma  22:27,  and  we  have  learned 
that  it  was  separated  from  Zara- 
hemla by  a  narrow  strip  of  wilder- 
ness which  ran  east  and  west  from 
sea  to  sea.  "And  the  land  of  Nephi 
did  run  in  a  straight  course  from  the 
east  sea  to  the  west."    Alma  50:8. 

XTow  we  are  presented  with  a 
unique  situation:  The  Sidon 
running  from  south  to  north  ends  in 
a  sea.  The  Land  of  Nephi  running 
east  and  west  runs  from  sea  to  sea. 
The  narrow  strip  of  wilderness  di- 
vides the  Land  of  Nephi  from  Zara- 
hemla, or  the  Nephite  lands,  and 
also  runs  from  sea  to  sea,  running 
east  and  west.  If  you  will  note  this 
forms  a  T,  with  the  Sidon  as  the 
stem  and  the  Land  of  Nephi  as  the 
top  bar.  From  this  T  and  the  east 
and  west  sea  shores  we  can  locate 
many  of  the  ancient  lands. 

The  Land  of  Zarahemla  was  near 
the  Sidon.  In  the  year  322  A.  D. 
the  last  wars  of  the  Nephites  began 
"in  the  borders  of  Zarahemla  by  the 
waters  of  Sidon."    Mormon  1:10. 

About  81  B.  C.  Zoram  and  his 
sons  left  Zarahemla  and  "crossed 
over  the  river  Sidon,  with  their 
armies,  and  marched  away  beyond 
the  borders  of  Manti  into  the  south 
wilderness,  which  was  on  the  east 
side  of  the  river  Sidon."  Alma  16: 
7.  This  passage  together  with  Alma 
2:15-37  (pay  particular  attention  to 
verses  15  and  27)  show  that  Zara- 
hemla was  on  the  west  of  the  Sidon. 
They  also  fix  Manti  as  on  the  east 
near  the  head  of  Sidon. 

Zarahemla  was  the  center  of  the 
Nephite  lands  in  the  days  of  Moroni. 
In  the  year  62  B.  C.  Moroni  wrote 
an  epistle  from  the  city  of  Mulek  to 
Pahoran,  who  was  then  chief  judge 
of  Zarahemla,  accusing  him  of  neg- 
lecting to  send  reinforcements  to  the 
frontiers  "because  ye  are  in  the  heart 
of  our  country  .  .  .  surrounded  by 
security."     Alma  60:19. 

LA  N  D 


OT   LAN  D 





,    n      JSJS.'/S 



Alma  z:36 




JE-RSHON    ^ 


\Ju<Zka  L«/Jf 

'•  LAND   OT     AZv»as/:a6* 






OF      NEPHI 

A  Zm  a  -5-osd 





LAND      OF 


AlTrta.  2Z:2& 


The  above  diagram  shows  the  relationship  of  Book  of  Mormon  lands  to  each 
other  in  the  first  century  B.  C.  as  developed  in  the  accompanying  article.  In  fitting 
this  diagram  to  any  map,  allowance  must  be  made  for  the  fact  that  rivers,  sea  coasts, 
etc,  which  deviate  several  degrees  from  a  meridian  may  be  said  to  run  North  or  South. 

It  is  suggested  that  the  student  try  to  trace  the  course  of  the  following  journeys 
or  military  campaigns  on  the  above  diagram. 

Alma  43:17-54,  44:22-24,  51:22-37,  52:1-40,  56:9-57,  62:14-38,  63:4-6;  Helaman 
1:14-33;  Mormon  1:6.   (Note  here  that  Zarahemla  was  in  the  Land  Southward.) 

Many  other  lands  and  cities  may  be  located  by  using  the  Book  of  Mormon  index 
as  a  guide. 

No  attempt  is  made  here  to  suggest  the  location  of  any  cities  in  the  Land  Northward. 

In  the  year  51  B.  C.  Coriantumr, 
a  renegade  Nephite,  led  a  great 
Lamanite  army  "down  to  the  land 
of  Zarahemla."  Helaman  1:17-18. 
After  capturing  Zarahemla  he  "did 
march  forth  with  a  large  army,  even 
towards  the  city  of  Bountiful;  for  it 
was  his  determination  to  go  forth 
and  cut  his  way  through  with  the 
sword,  that  he  might  obtain  the  north 
parts  of  the  land."  Helaman  1:23. 
"But  behold,  this  march  of  Corian- 
tumr through  the  center  of  the  land 
gave  Moronihah  great  advantage 
over  them."    Helaman  1:25. 

These  verses  establish  the  fact 
that  Zarahemla  was  in  the  center  of 
the  Nephite  lands,  also  that  the  city 

Bountiful  was  north  of  Zarahemla. 

The  Land  Bountiful  was  near  the 
"small  neck  of  land  which  divided 
the  land  southward  from  the  land 
northward"  and  was  inhabited  by 
the  Nephites  "even  from  the  east 
unto  the  west  sea."  Alma  22:29- 
33.  Note  here  that  verse  32  tells  us 
that  the  "land  of  Nephi  and  the  land 
of  Zarahemla  were  nearly  surround- 
ed by  water."  This  use  of  the  term 
"land  of  Zarahemla"  apparently  in- 
cludes not  only  the  specific  land  sur- 
rounding the  city  of  Zarahemla,  but 
all  Nephite  lands  of  this  period. 

The  city  of   Bountiful  was  sep- 
arated from  the  city  of  Mulek  by 
( Concluded  on  page  439 ) 

.,...,,....,....  .............       ... 


v.  {RwfdcdwfL  fiaptaauL  bi^ 
(DobcdsL  and,  QmpsAmL  £dtct 


Head  of  the  Department  of  Modem  Languages  at 
the  University  of  Utah,  and  a  member  of  the  Gen- 
eral Board  of  the  Deseret  Sunday  School  Union. 


'T'his  people  draweth  nigh  unto  me  with  their 
mouth,  and  honoreth  me  with  their  lips;  but 
their  heart  is  far  from  me. 

"But  in  vain  they  do  worship  me,  teaching  for 
doctrines  the  commandments  of  men." 

—Matthew  15:8,  9. 


IN  359,  Constantius  called  a  gen- 
eral council  to  restore  the  peace 
of  the  church.  The  eastern  bish- 
ops assembled  at  Seleucia  and  the 
western  bishops  at  Rimini  in  Italy.  A 
moderate  Arian  statement  of  faith, 
drawn  up  at  the  headquarters  of  the 
emperor  at  Sirmium,  declared  the 
Father  and  the  Son  to  be  similar 
in  all  things  ( kata  panta )  according 
to  the  scriptures,  and  the  term  ousia 
(substance)  was  rejected.  Under 
pressure  of  the  emperor,  who  had 
first  caused  the  expression  in  all 
things  to  be  dropped,  the  decision 
was  accepted  by  the  western  bishops 
at  Rimini.  Then,  Constantius,  with 
threats  and  force,  caused  the  west- 
ern bishops  to  sign  the  formula  as 
modified  by  another  council  at  Con- 
stantinople. Owing  to  division,  the 
synod  at  Seleucia  did  not  arrive  at 
any  real  conclusion.  However,  it 
sent  representatives  to  the  emperor 
and  these  were  compelled  to  accept 
the  symbol  of  faith  and,  after  it  had 
been  modified  by  the  council  of  Con- 
stantinople (360),  it  was  sent  to 
the  bishops  everywhere  for  their 
signature  under  threats  of  exile. 
Jerome  says,  "The  whole  world 
groaned  and  was  astonished  to  see 
itself  Arian." 

Even  the  deposed  Athanasian 
(Nicene  creed)  bishops  now  sub- 
scribed the  Arian  belief. 

Hosius,  bishop  of  Cordova,  for- 
merly the  ecclesiastical  advisor  of 
Constantine  and  whose  signature 

heads  the  list  of  those  who  sub- 
scribed the  Nicene  faith  at  the  coun- 
cil of  Nicea,  "was  induced  by  long 
imprisonment  and  the  threats  of  the 
emperor  ...  to  subscribe  the  Arian 
formula  of  the  second  council  of 
Sirmium  (357)." 

The  banishment  of  Bishop  Liber- 
ius  of  Rome  occurred  in  355  and 
the  Arian  Felix  was  elected,  "by 
antichristian  wickedness"  as  Athan- 
asius  puts  it,  and  ordained  bishop  of 

Bishop  Liberius  had  stood  with 
firmness  for  Athanasius  and  the 
Nicene  faith,  but  he  was  unable  to 
withstand  banishment.  In  a  letter  to 
Constantius,  Liberius  writes:  "You, 
in  your  justice  and  clemency,  can 
decide  whether  it  is  right  to  assent 
to  their  (the  Arian)  judgment."15 
Another  letter  of  Bishop  Liberius 
of  Rome  reads: 

Liberius,  to  his  dearly  beloved  brethren, 
priests  and  fellow  bishops  of  the  East, 

...  I  did  not  defend  Athanasius  but, 
because  my  predecessor,  Bishop  Julius  of 
honorable  memory,  had  received  him,  I  was 
afraid  that  I  might  be  considered  a  traitor 
in  some  sort.  But  when,  by  God's  will,  I 
realized  that  you  had  been  right  in  con- 
demning him,  I  straightway  gave  my  assent 
to  your  judgment. '  And  I  delivered  a  let- 
ter concerning  him  to  our  brother  Fortu- 
natianus  to  carry  to  the  emperor  Con- 
stantius. So  now  that  Athanasius  has  been 
excluded  from  communion  with  all  of  us 
and  his  official  letters  are  no  longer  to  be 
accepted  by  me,  I  assert  that  I  am  in  peace 
and  harmony  with  you  everyone  and  with 
all  the  bishops  of  the  east  and  throughout 
the  provinces. 

15Letter    in    full    in   Shotwell   and   Loomis, 
of  Peter,   pp.  556-563. 

The  See 


Moreover,  you  may  be  sure  that  I  am 
professing  the  true  faith  in  this  letter,  for 
our  common  Lord  and  brother,  Demophilus, 
has  deigned  in  his  charity  to  expound  to  me 
your  Catholic  (Arian)  faith,  which  was 
also  discussed  and  expounded  at  Sirmium 
by  many  of  our  brethren  and  fellow  bish- 
ops and  adopted  by  all  who  were  present. 
This  I  have  gladly  accepted  and  in  no 
particular  have  I  gainsaid  it  and  to  it  I 
have  declared  my  assent.  This  I  follow 
and  this  I  uphold.  I  confidendy  believe 
that  I  may  entreat  your  holiness,  now  that 
you  behold  me  in  hearty  agreement  with 
you,  to  put  forth  your  efforts  graciously 
in  common  council  and  zeal,  that  I  may 
be  released  from  banishment  and  return 
to  the  see  which  was  once  divinely  en- 
trusted to  me.18 

A  similar  letter  was  sent  to  the 
Arian  leaders: 

Liberius  in  exile  to  Ursacius,  Valens 
and  Germinius. 

Whereas  I  know  you  are  sons  of  peace 
and  love  the  concord  and  harmony  of  the 
Catholic  church  (now  Arian),  therefore, 
under  no  compulsion  whatever, —  as  I  call 
God  to  witness, — but  for  the  sake  of  the 
blessing  of  peace  and  concord,  which  is 
preferable  to  martyrdom,  I  approach  you 
with  this  letter,  my  lords  and  dearest  breth- 
ren. I  hereby  inform  your  wisdom  that 
I  had  condemned  Athanasius,  who  was 
bishop  of  the  Alexandrian  church,  before 
I  wrote  to  the  court  of  the  holy  emperor 
that  I  was  sending  a  letter  to  the  eastern 
bishops.  And  he  has  been  cut  off  from  the 
communion  of  the  Roman  church,  as  all 
the  priesthood  of  the  Roman  church  is 
witness.  .  .  .  Wherefore,  I  approach  you 
with  this  letter  and  adjure  you,  by  Al- 
mighty God  and  Christ  Jesus  His  Son,  our 
God  and  Lord,  to  go  graciously  to  our  most 
clement  emperor,  Constantius,  and  ask  that 
for  the  blessing  of  peace  and  concord,  in 
which  his  reverence  always  finds  delight, 
he  may  order  me  to  return  to  the  church 
divinely  committed  to  me,  so  that  in  his 
time  the  Roman  church  may  not  endure 
tribulation.  By  this  letter  you  are  to  un- 
derstand fairly  and  honestly,  dearest  broth- 
ers, that  I  am  at  peace  with  all  you  bishops 
of  the  Catholic  church   (now  Arian).19 

However,  in  defense  of  Liberius, 
Athanasius,  History  of  the  Arians, 
41,  says,  "But  Liberius  gave  way, 
after  he  had  been  two  years  in  exile, 

16Shotwell  and  Loomis,  The  See  of  Peter,  pp.  581, 

THE    IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 

and  subscribed  for  fear  of  threat- 
ened death.  Yet  this  shows  only 
their  violence  and  Liberius'  hatred  of 
heresy  and  support  of  Athanasius 
as  long  as  he  had  a  free  choice.  For 
that  which  men  do  under  torture, 
against  their  original  intention, 
ought  not  to  be  considered  the  will 
of  these  terrified  persons  but  rather 
that  of  their  tormentors."16 

Yet  Athanasius  is  not  known  to 
have  raised  any  objection  to  the 
over-awing  conduct  of  Constantine 
in  the  Nicene  Council  and  the  exer- 
cise of  imperial  force  in  behalf  of 
the  Nicene  faith.  The  most  famous 
leaders  of  both  parties  did  not  ob- 
ject to  the  use  of  force,  provided 
they  benefited  by  it,  and  the  most 
famous  fathers  of  the  Athanasian 
party  later  defended  its  use." 
JQoth  the  Athanasian  and  the 
Arian  parties  considered  them- 
selves as  constituting  the  "catholic 
(that  is,  universal)  church"  and,  in 
fact,  whichever  party  had  the  might 
of  the  emperor  behind  it  was  the 
"catholic  church."  Had  the  emperor 
always  been  Arian,  the  power  of 
the  state  would  have  been  used  in 
continuous  support  of  Arianism,  and 
Arianism  would  have  been  the  or- 
thodox faith  of  the  "catholic 
church,"  and  Athanasianism  or  the 
Nicene  creed  would  have  been 

However,  the  final  and  decisive 
exercise  of  imperial  might  and  au- 
thority was  in  support  of  the  Athan- 
asian or  Nicene  faith.  It  was  this 
exercise  of  imperial  judgment,  au- 
thority and  power — not  divine  reve- 
lation nor  guidance,  unless  indeed 
the  use  of  violence  was  divinely 
guided  though  inconsistent — that 
determined  the  fundamental  Chris- 
tian beliefs,  or  at  least  dogmas,  for 
many  centuries  to  come. 

For  a  period  of  eighteen  years 
after  the  death  of  Constantius  in  361 , 
the  fortunes  of  the  parties  varied 
with  the  vacillating  support  of  the 
emperors:  for  two  years  until  his 
death  the  pagan  emperor  Julian  tried 
to  restore  the  pagan  worship;  then 
the  Nicene  faith  was  renewed  in  the 
west.  "Gratian  (375-378)  did  not 
show  himself  any  less  hostile  to 
Arian  heresy  (in  the  west)  than  to 
paganism;  and  one  could  believe, 
after  the  tragic  death  of  Valens  ( the 
Arian  emperor  of  the  Eastern  Em- 
pire) at  the  battle  of  Adrianople  in 
378,  that  the  cause  of  Arianism  was 
lost  forever.  .  .  . 

"The    two    primitive     forms    of 

"Schaff,  History  of  the  Christian  Church,  vol.  iii, 
p.  145:  "Soon  after  (Augustine),  Leo  the  Great, 
the  first  representative  of  consistent,  exclusive,  uni- 
versal papacy,  advocated  even  the  penalty  of  death 
for   heresy." 

Arianism,  the  pure  doctrine  of  Arius 
and  the  changing  theories  emitted  by 
the  Eusebian  party,  were  effectively 
ruined  forever."18 

Throughout  the  fourth  and  fifth 
centuries,  the  emperors  frequently 
decided  in  favor  of  one  bishop  as 
against  another  and  approved  or 
condemned  doctrines:  "In  the  edict 
of  the  year  543  that  emperor  (Jus- 
tinian )  condemned  nine  of  Origen's 
propositions,  and  added  his  name  to 
the  list  of  heretics  who  were  anathe- 
matized by  all  bishops  and  abbots  at 
the  time  of  their  installation.  In  this 
wise  Origen  was  numbered  among 
such  heretics  as  Sabellius,  Arius,  and 
others.  .  .  . 

"After  the  decree  condemning 
Origen  and  his  writings  had  been 
published,  the  authorities  immedi- 
ately proceeded  to  put  it  into  execu- 
tion (by  force)."18 

18Mourret,  Les  Peres  de  I'Egtise,  p.  201. 

19Funk,  A  Manual  of  Church  History,  p.  154. 

Schaff,  History  of  the  Christian  Church,  vol.  iii,  p. 

139:  "In  the  ante-Nicene  age,  heresy  and  schism 
.  .  .  were  met  only  in  a  moral  way,  by  word  and 
writing,  and  were  punished  with  excommunication 
from  the  rights  of  the  church.  Justin  Martyr,  Ter- 
tullian,  and  even  Lacantantius  were  the  first  advocates 
of  the  principle  of  freedom  of  conscience,  and  main- 
tained, against  the  heathen,  that  religion  was  essen- 
tially a  matter  of  free  will,  and  could  be  promoted 
only  by  instruction  and  persuasion,  not  by  outward 
force.  All  they  say  against  the  persecution  of 
Christians  by  the  heathen  applies  in  full  to  the 
persecution  of  heretics  by  the  church.  After  the 
Nicene  age  all  departures  from  the  reigning  state- 
church  faith  were  not  only  abhorred  and  excommuni- 
cated as  religious  errors,  but  were  treated  also  as 
crimes  against  the  Christian  state,  and  hence  were 
punished  with  civil  penalties;  at  first  with  deposition, 
banishment,  confiscation,  and,  after  Theodosius,  even 
with  death."  See  Just.  Mart.  Apol.  i.  2,  4,  12; 
Tectull,  Apolog.  c.   24,   28. 

Schaff,  History  of  the  Christian  Church,  vol.  iii, 
p.  134:  "The  emperors  after  Constantine  (as  the 
popes  after  them)  summoned  the  general  councils, 
bore  the  necessary  expenses,  presided  in  the  councils 
through  commissions,  gave  to  the  decisions  in  doctrine 
and  discipline  the  force  of  law  for  the  whole  Roman 
empire,  and  maintained  them  by  their  authority.  The 
emperors  nominated  or  confirmed  the  most  influential 
metropolitans  and  patriarchs.  They  took  part  in  all 
theological  disputes.  .  .  .  They  protected  orthodoxy 
and  punished  heresy  with  the  arm  of  power.  Often, 
however,  they  took  the  heretical  side,  and  banished 
orthodox   bishops   from   their   sees." 

Funk-Perciballi  (Catholic),  Manual  of  Church  His- 
tory,  1,  p.  198:  "With  regard  to  the  constitution 
of  the  General  Synods,  it  was  the  Emperor  who  called 
them  together,  and  this  corresponds  with  their  char- 
acter as  Synods   of  the  Empire  .   .   .  and  as  the   Em- 

From  379-395  Theodosius  the 
Great,  though,  except  for  three 
years,  not  sole  ruler,  exercised  the 
real  power  in  both  east  and  west. 
Like  all  western  emperors,  he  was 
Athanasian;  and  he  was  the  first  em- 
peror to  be  baptized  in  the  Nicene 
faith.  He  enacted  more  rigid  pen- 
alties against  paganism  and  against 
all  non-Athanasian  Christian  sects, 
henceforth  termed  heresies.  "Soon 
after  his  baptism,  380,  he  issued,  in 
connection  with  his  weak  co-em- 
perors, Gratian  and  Valentinian  II., 
to  the  inhabitants  of  Constantinople, 
then  the  chief  seat  of  Arianism,  the 
following  edict: 

We,  the  three  emperors,  will,  that  all 
our  subjects  adhere  to  the  religion  which 
was  taught  by  St.  Peter  to  the  Romans, 
which  has  been  faithfully  preserved  by  tra- 
dition, and  which  is  now  professed  by  the 
pontiff  Damascus  of  Rome,  and  Peter,  bishop 
of  Alexandria,  a  man  of  apostolic  holiness. 
According  to  the  institution  of  the  apostles 
and  the  doctrine  of  the  gospel,  let  us  believe 
in  the  one  Godhead  of  the  Father,  the  Son, 
and  the  Holy  Ghost,  of  equal  majesty  in 
the  Holy  Trinity,  We  order  that  the  ad- 
herents of  this  faith  be  called  Catholic 
Christians;  we  brand  all  the  senseless  fol- 
lowers of  other  religions  with  the  infamous 
name  of  heretics,  and  forbid  their  conven- 
ticles assuming  the  name  of  churches.  Be- 
sides the  condemnation  of  divine  justice, 
they  must  expect  the  heavy  penalties  which 
our  authority  guided  by  heavenly  wisdom, 
shall  think  proper  to  inflict.  Cod.  Theod. 
xvi,  1,  2. 

In  the  course  of  fifteen  years  this 

emperor  issued  at  least  fifteen  penal 

(Continued  on  page  437) 

peror  convened  the  assembly,  so,  either  in  person  or 
by  means  of  commissioners,  he  maintained  the  public 
order.  On  account  of  the  popular  excitement  during 
such  sessions,  this  was  not  merely  desirable,  but 
absolutely  necessary.  At  their  close  the  Emperor 
ratified  the  Synodical  canons,  imparting  to  them  in 
this  way  a  legal  force.  ...  In  no  General  Council 
of  this  period  were  the  Popes  ever  present  in  person. 
.  .  .  By  the  votes  of  their  Legates  the  Popes  consented 
to  the  decrees  .  .  ,  the  Imperial  ratification  imme- 
diately following  the  formularization  of  the  canons 
and  the  closure  of  the  Synod,  and  therefore  before 
any  further  confirmation  from  the  Pope  could  have 
been  obtained;  whereas  on  the  theory  of  subsequent 
Papal  approbation  the  Papal  confirmation  would  neces- 
sarily have  preceded  that  of  the  Emperor." 






Porter  and  Peter  Hohecson,  two 
marriageable  and  very-much-in-love  young 
people  of  a  rural  Mormon  community, 
found  themselves  anticipating  "their  spring" 
— the  spring  in  which  they,  with  others 
of  their  friends,  had  decided  to  go  to  the 
Temple  to  be  married  at  June  Conference 
time.  But  seemingly  poor  agricultural 
prospects  and  accumulated  debt  caused 
Peter,  a  high-principled  and  cautious 
young  man,  to  postpone  the  marriage  un- 
til "better  times."  Questioning  his  motives 
and  his  wisdom,  and  in  the  anger  of  her 
disappointment,  Nancy  impulsively  served 
notice  on  her  betrothed  that  the  "post- 
ponement" would  be  permanent  and  the 
"engagement  was  off."  The  embarrass- 
ment was  intensified  by  the  fact  that 
two  couples  of  "their  crowd,"  Mark  and 
Phyllis,  and  Lynn  and  Vera,  who  were 
apparently  less  economically  prepared  for 
marriage,  decided  to  go  through  with  their 
plans  notwithstanding.  And  so  these  two 
parted,  with  hopes  postponed — or  aban- 
doned. Living  in  a  discouraged  home  with 
a  chronically  and  seriously  ill  father,  dis- 
couraged younger  brothers,  and  a  work- 
worn  mother,  who  held  tenaciously  to  prin- 
ciples and  ideals,  Nancy  became  rebellious 
and  determined  to  better  her  situation. 
Through  a  chain  of  favorable  circumstances, 
she  finally  secured  a  temporary  job  as 
commissary-keeper  of  a  huge  ranching  op- 
eration in  a  nearby  section  of  the  country. 
Reid  Wood,  young,  impatient,  city-bred 
son  of  the  ranch  owner-operator,  called  to 
take  her  to  her  new  assignment.  The  trip 
was  made;  the  job  was  reached.  There 
was  something  about  Reid  Wood  that  she 
wanted  to  remember.  There  was  something 
about  Peter  Holverson  that  she  couldn't 
forget:  There  was  some  resentment  be- 
tween Reid  Wood  and  his  father  that  she 
couldn't  understand.  And  so  she  found 
herself  among  cross-currents  with  a  job 
on  her  hands  and  heavy  thoughts  in  her 
mind.  With  the  passing  days  she  found 
herself  liking  her  job  and  her  surround- 
ings, and  found  herself  drawing  near  to  the 
kindly  inner  nature  of  her  employer,  father 
Ben  Wood — and  found  her  thoughts  often 
drifting  to  his  restless  son,  Reid,  with  whom 
she  rode  and  talked,  learning  something  of 
the  cause  of  his  restless  discontent.  A 
serious  accident  to  Mr.  Ben  Wood  put  his 
son  Reid  in  charge  of  the  ranching  opera- 
tion, under  which  responsibility  he  showed 
some  signs  of  commendable  leadership  and 
some  signs  of  possessive  arrogance.  Nancy 
soon  learned  that  her  former  sweetheart, 
Peter  Holverson,  was  under  serious  financial 
obligation  to  the  Woods — and  that  young 
Wood  intended  to  force  payment.  The 
intrusion  of  a  presumptuous  nurse.  Miss 
Meade,  employed  to  care  for  Mr.  Wood, 
further  complicated  an  already  difficult 


Chapter  Six 


.he  next  week  was  one 
of  the  hardest  Nancy  ever  spent,  and 
the  loneliest.  On  his  return  from 
Blaine  the  day  after  Peter's  visit  to 
the  ranch  Reid  had  pointedly  ignored 
her.  It  was  evident  he  sensed  what 
the  letter  to  the  bank  had  meant. 
Was  it  anything  to  do  with  her  if 
Mr.  Wood  had  made  it  possible  for 
Pete  to  borrow  the  money  to  pay  his 
son?  Was  she  at  fault  if  his  victory 
were  not  a  victory  after  all?  Ap- 
parently he  thought  so.  He  pointed- 
ly courted  Miss  Meade's  attention 
and  Nancy  was  once  again  just  the 
book-keeper.  Not  that  she  minded 
that,  she  told  herself;  but  she  had 
nearly  given  up  her  position  because 
of  that  letter  and  Pete  was  as  indif- 
ferent as  a  stranger  would  have 
been.  He  had  not  come  back  as 
he  had  promised  nor  had  he  sent 
any  word.  Her  knowledge  of  the 
outcome  of  the  affair  was  mostly 
guesswork  gleaned  from  Reid's  at- 
titude and  some  loud  words  she  had 
heard  him  shout  at  his  father.  Then 
one  day  Mr.  Wood  had  spoken  to 

"Say,  young  lady,  did  you  mail 
that  letter  I  wrote?*' 

"Reid  mailed  it.  He  went  to  town 
that  morning." 

"Huh.  Seems  I  can't  even  write 
to  my  bank  without  my  own  son  get- 
ting suspicious.  Guess  I  know  my 
own  business."  He  looked  sternly 
at  her  as  if  defying  her  thought. 

One  Sunday  Nancy  was  sitting  on 
the  lawn  reading.  Miss  Meade  and 
Reid  Wood  had  gone  away  horse- 
back. Mrs.  Chris  was  in  Blaine 
with  her  husband,  and  Mr.  Wood 
was  supposed  to  be  sleeping.  There 
was  a  humming  undertone  of  sum- 
mer in  the  air  about  her.  From  the 
fields  came  the  faintly  rhythmic 
clicking  of  mowing  machines.  Even 
on  Sunday  the  work  went  on  here. 
She  let  her  book  drop.  Why  must 
she  be  alone?  This  kind  of  weather 
was  meant  to  be  shared,  not  endured. 

She  thought  of  the  radio  but  that 
might  disturb  the  sleeping  man.  She 
would  have  liked  to  go  in  the  field 
and  drive  one  of  the  mowing  ma- 
chines. That,  too,  was  taboo.  Life 
had  become  more  complicated  these 
last  two  weeks.  As  if  in  answer  to 
her  wish  there  came  to  her  ears  a 
short,  impudent  blast  from  an  auto- 
mobile horn.  She  looked  up  ex- 

"It's  the  crowd!"  She  dropped  her 
book  and  sprang  to  her  feet.  By  the 
time  Lynn  had  stopped  the  car  she 
was  there  to  open  the  door  for  them. 
They  greeted  her  with  an  affection 
born  of  years  of  intimacy. 

"You  darling."  Vera  held  her  at 
arm's  length.  "You're  positively 
beautiful.  Getting  away  has  done 
something  to  you.  If  Hans  Peter 
Holverson  could  only  see  you  now." 

"Why  didn't  you  bring  him?" 

"We  intended  to  but  he  was  not 
at  Sunday  School  and  we  came  di- 
rectly from  there." 

"Then  you  have  not  eaten?" 

"Yes.  We  have,"  Phyllis  told 
her.    "We  stopped  at  our  place  and 


Vera  had  dropped  to  the  lawn. 
"This  is  heavenly,"  she  said  and 
the  others  sat  beside  her.  "We 
thought,"  she  continued  to  Nancy, 
"that  Pete  had  already  come  over 

"We're  missing  you,"  Phyllis  was 
studying  her  closely.  "You  didn't 
mean  what  you  said  Easter  Sunday, 
did  you?  About  you  and  Pete,  I 

"Certainly  she  meant  it,"  Vera 

"Tell  me  about  your  trip."  Nancy 
turned  the  talk  from  herself.  "This 
is  the  first  time  I  have  seen  you 
since  you  were  married." 

V  ERA  launched  into  a 
lively  description  of  the  sights  they 
had  seen,  the  fun  they  had  had,  with 
a  vivid  account  of  a  flat  tire  and 
the  length  of  time  it  had  taken  the 
boys  to  fix  it.  All  in  all  it  had  been 
a  very  satisfactory  trip.  "The  only 
fly  in  the  ointment,"  she  ended,  "was 
having  to  merely  look  at  all  the  per- 
fectly gorgeous  dresses.  I  tried  on 
at  least  a  thousand." 

"You  could  get  just  as  nice  ones 
in  Blaine,"  Phyllis  reminded  her. 

"But  that  is  different." 

"How  is  it  they  have  water 
enough  over  here?"  Lynn  asked  sud- 
denly. "I  like  the  looks  of  these 
fields  and  this  valley.     It  has  been 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 


two  or  three  years  since  I  was  over 

"They  haven't.  The  men  say  they 
will  be  a  hundred  tons  of  hay  short. 
Mr.  Wood  has  a  reservoir  of  his  own 
in  the  hills  back  of  here." 

"I've  got  to  get  out  somewhere," 
Lynn  went  on.  "There  isn't  land 
enough  on  our  place  for  Dad  and 
all  us  boys.     I'd  like — -" 

"Have  you  really  decided  that?" 
his  wife  turned  her  head  and  looked 
pointedly  at  him. 

"Yep."  Lynn  rose  and  spoke  to 
Mark.     "Let's  look  around." 

"Okay."     Mark  rose  lazily. 

Vera  watched  their  retreating  fig- 
ures. "It  is  a  good  thing  he  has 
come  to  his  senses." 


To  their  dismay  brittle  Vera  burst 
into  tears.  Nancy  put  her  arms  about 
the  shaking  shoulders.    "Don't  cry." 

The  girl  shook  herself  and  sat  up 
determinedly.    "What  a  laugh.  The 

flutterly  little  Vic  being  sick  of  mar- 
ried life." 

"Vera."  Constant  Phyllis  was 

"Oh,  don't  be  so  righteous,  Phil. 
I'm  sick  of  living  in  someone  else's 
house.  What  do  we  get  married  for 
if  it  isn't  to  have  a  home  of  our 

"But  you  were  anxious — " 

"Don't  rub  it  in."  Her  voice 
turned  wavery.  "I've  worked  on 
that  woman-killing  farm  until  I  never 
want  to  hear  of  work  again." 

"And  I  worry  about  the  absence 
of  work." 

"What  do  you  mean?"  Nancy  de- 
manded.   "You  haven't  lost  your — " 

"No.  But  Mark  hasn't  any  work." 

They  fell  silent.  Marrying  had 
solved  some  problems  and  created 
others.  Perhaps  life,  after  all,  was 
a  succession  of  problems  to  be 

"How  are  things  over  home?" 

"Like  they  always  are.  Out  your 
way  it  is  terrible.  We're  leaving." 

"What  do  you  mean?" 

"Exactly  what  I  said.  It's  the 
parting  of  the  ways  for  us  and  the 
farm.  Why  people  can  be  stupid 
enough  to  stay  on  one  is  beyond  me. 
Lynn  doesn't  know  it  yet  but  we  are 

"But — "  Nancy  began. 

"I  know  all  the  reasons,  darling. 
I  hear  them  every  hour  of  the  day. 
But  if  there  is  anything  more  un- 
certain about  a  pay  check  than  there 
is  about  the  weather  you  tell  me." 

"I  think—" 

"I  know  that  one,  too.  On  a  farm 
you  always  have  something  to  eat — 
providing  the  woman  hoes  the  gar- 
den two  or  three  hours  a  day.  Well, 
I  never  was  keen  about  eating.  I'd 
sooner  have  a  bath  tub.  I'd  as  soon 
worry  about  little  bills  as  big  ones. 
Of  course,  a  place  like  this  one 
would  be  different.  You're  crazy, 
Nancy,  if  you  ever  leave  it." 

"What  do  you  mean?" 
"Isn't  there  an  unattached   male 
around  here?" 
"Vera,  please." 

"My,  my,  how  modest  we  are 
these  days.  You  fish.  Any  man 
will  be  lucky  to  get  you." 

"But  there  is  Pete,"  Phyllis  cried. 

"Honestly,  Phyl,  you  are  too 
loyal  to  be  true.  If  Nancy  must 
choose  between  two  evils  why  not 
take  the  comfortable  one." 

"If  you  are  so  keen  about  money," 
Nancy  asked  her,  "why  did  you 
marry  Lynn?" 

The  black  eyes  scowled.  "Don't 
get  personal.  I  am  telling  you  what 
to  do."  They  all  laughed  and  after 
that  they  felt  better. 

iNlANCY  had  brought  them 
sandwiches  and  a  cold  drink  and 
they  were  preparing  to  leave  when 
next  Nancy  remembered  Phyl's  re- 
mark about  work. 

"Mark,"  she  said.  "They  want 
another  steady  man  here.  I  heard 
the  cook  telling  about  it  this  morn- 

"That  would  be  a  break,"  Lynn 
turned  to  him.  "Why  don't  you 

"I  will.  I'll  come  over  the  first 
thing  in  the  morning." 

Phyllis  put  her  hand  on  his  arm. 
"Shouldn't  you  see  about  it  now?" 

"But  they  told  us  out  yonder  the 
boss  was  gone." 

"We'll  wait."  Lynn  wasn't  going 
to  let  Mark  miss  his  chance  for 
work.  "Let's  ride  up  to  the  head 
of  the  valley.    Come  on." 

Nancy  hesitated.  "I  will  if  Mr. 
Wood  is  asleep."  She  went  to  his 
door  and  looked  in.  Coming  back 
she  told  them,  "Get  in  the  car.  I'll 
be  with  you  in  a  moment."  She  went 
back  to  the  kitchen  by  the  com- 
missary. "Now,"  she  said  when  she 
was  in  the  car  with  them,  "I  can 
go  in  peace.  Jim  says  he  will  listen 
for  Mr.  Wood.  But  the  nurse 
should  be  back  before  long."  She 
sat  in  the  back  with  Mark  and 

As  they  neared  the  head  of  the 
valley  the  vegetation  seemed  greener 
and  more  inviting,  though  every- 
where, as  on  Big  Smokey,  there 
were  evidences  of  the  lack  of  rain. 
Lynn  drove  slowly.  He  was  watch- 
ing the  fields  on  both  sides  of  the 

"Don't  I  wish  I  could  have  had 
the  chance  these  men  had  when  they 
came  to  this  valley." 

"What  do  you  mean  chance?"  his 
wife  demanded.  "It  looks  like  a 
dumb  place  to  me." 

"I  mean  the  chance  to  take  up  a 
homestead  with  free  range  on  all 
sides.  No  wonder  Mr.  Wood  made 
a  fortune." 

"Some  of  them  haven't  done  so 
well,"  Mark  said,  as  they  passed  a 
long,  low  log  cabin  that  was  surely 
a  derelict  of  the  past. 

(Continued  on  page  442) 




Of  the  Church  Historian' s  Office 

lt)oA.  not  ihsL  wjcu^  jd$L  msttL 

HPhe  one-hundredth  anniversary  of 
the  revelation  on  tithing  given  July 
8,  1838,  recalls  Lorenzo  Snow's  di- 
vinely directed  mission  to>  St.  George 
in  the  late  nineties  which  pointed  the 
way  for  the  Church  and  its  people  out 
of  financial  bondage. 


UT     FAITHFULNESS     TO     THE     LAW     OF 


Lorenzo  Snow  was  inhis eighty- 
fifth  year  when  President  Wil- 
ford  Woodruff  died.  Men 
usually  seek  retirement  long  before 
they  reach  this  advanced  age.  They 
rarely  welcome  burdens  of  responsi- 
bility so  late  in  life.  It  was  gener- 
ally understood,  both  by  the  Latter- 
day  Saints  and  by  non-members  of 
the  Church,  that  Lorenzo  Snow, 
who  was  then  president  of  the  Coun- 
cil of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  would  be 
the  successor  to  President  Wood- 
ruff. However,  there  were  some 
who  believed,  at  the  time,  that  he 
would  not  accept  this  position. 

The  responsibilities  of  Church 
leadership  were  very  great.  A  com- 
bination of  circumstances  had  so 
involved  the  Church,  politically  and 
financially,  that  embarrassment  and 
distress  faced  the  people.  Great 
problems  awaited  solution.  Unusual 
leadership  was  required.  The  situ- 
ation demanded  the  greatest  energy 
and  strength.  Was  Lorenzo  Snow 
equal  to  it?  Many  years  had  passed 
since  his  participation  in  financial 
affairs.  He  had  not  recently  been 
identified  with  large  business  enter- 
prises. His  entire  time  was  occupied 
in  temple  work,  and  he  was  rather 
inclined  to  spiritual  than  to  business 

President  Snow,  after  his  call  to 
the  Presidency,  humbly  admitted 
that  he  did  not  know  just  what  he 
would  do;  but  he  was  confident  that 
the  Lord  would  show  him,  and  he 
placed  such  dependence  upon  the 
promptings  of  God's  spirit,  and  was 
so  sure  that  he  would  follow  those 
instructions  that  he  said:  "My  ad- 
ministration will  not  be  known  as 



were  begun 
Court.  All 
Church  was 

mine,   but  as   God's  administration 
through  me." 

The  day  after  President  John 
Taylor's  funeral,  proceedings  for  the 
confiscation  of  Church  property 
in  the  United  States 
the  property  of  the 
seized  and  for  nearly 
ten  years  tedious  and  expensive  liti- 
gation continued.  Then,  too,  for  sev- 
eral years  the  General  Authorities 
had  been  compelled,  by  prosecution 
under  the  Edmunds-Tucker  law,  to 
remain  from  home.  Therefore,  dur- 
ing this  period,  the  business  inter- 
ests of  the  Church  suffered  greatly. 

These  are  but  two  of  the  several 
contributing  causes  which  brought 
about  serious  financial  distress.    In- 

stead of  the  Latter-day  Saints  being 
moneylenders  they  had  tended  to 
become  "hewers  of  wood  and  draw- 
ers of  water."  They  were  truly  in 
bondage;  the  heavy  yoke  of  indebt- 
edness was  fastened  about  their 
necks.  Under  present  changed 
conditions  it  is  difficult  to  realize 
fully  the  humiliating  financial  posi- 
tion which  the  Church  occupied  at 
that  time.  Hundreds  of  thousands 
of  dollars  in  past-due  obligations 
were  presented  for  payment  and 
could  not  be  met.  I  well  remember 
my  father's  approaching  his  chief 
clerk,  James  Jack,  with  the  words: 
"Brother  Jack,  we  must  raise  some 
money.  Go  through  all  the  secur- 
ities we  have  and  see  if  you  cannot 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,    1938 


find  something  that  we  can  sell  to 
raise  some  money." 

"Because  of  the  great  number  of 
creditors  who  presented  their  de- 
mands, and  because  of  the  vast 
amount  of  indebtedness,  father  often 
referred  to  the  conditions  as  "the 
bottomless  pit,"  and  "the  unfathom- 
able deep."  Much  of  this  indebted- 
ness, which  aggregated  about  two 
millions  of  dollars,  was  drawing  ten 
per  cent  interest. 

The  first  step  President  Snow 
took  in  Church  finances  was  to  issue 
a  million  dollars  in  six  per  cent 
bonds,  thus  not  only  greatly  reduc- 
ing the  interest  rate,  but  removing, 
temporarily,  the  immediate  demand 
of  creditors.  However,  this  did  not 
decrease  the  indebtedness  of  the 
Church — it  simply  postponed  final 
payment.  How  was  this  tremendous 
obligation,  which  had  been  accumu- 
lating for  many  years,  to  be  paid? 

One  prominent  business  man  pre- 
sented a  plan  to  solicit  contributions 
from  the  entire  Church  membership. 
He  suggested  a  One  Thousand 
Dollar  Club  to  include  all  who  would 
contribute  one  thousand  dollars 
each,  a  Five  Hundred  Dollar  Club, 
etc.;  but  President  Snow  shook  his 
head  and  said:  "No,  that  is  not  the 
Lord's  plan."  The  Lord  had  not  yet 
shown  his  servant  just  how  the 
problem  was  to  be  solved,  but  he  re- 
vealed the  plan  a  little  later. 

One  morning  my  father  said  he 
was  going  to  St.  George  in  Southern 
Utah.  I  was  much  surprised  at  the 
thought  of  his  making  this  long  and 
hard  trip.  Mother  expressed  con- 
siderable surprise,  but  asked  no 

Upon  entering  the  President's  of- 

fice, father  informed  Secretary 
George  F.  Gibbs  of  the  contem- 
plated trip  to  St.  George.  Brother 
Gibbs  at  once  asked  how  soon  Pres- 
ident Snow  expected  to  leave  and 
who  would  be  in  the  party.  The 
reply  was  that  he  would  leave  just 
as  soon  as  arrangements  could  be 
made,  and  that  he  would  take  as 
many  of  the  General  Authorities  as 
could  be  spared  from  the  important 
work  at  home. 

All  necessary  arrangements  were 
made,  teams  and  carriages  were  sent 
ahead  to  Modena,  the  terminus  at 
that  time  of  the  Salt  Lake  Route,  and 
on  Monday  afternoon,  May  15, 
1899,  the  following  party  left  Salt 
Lake  City  in  the  private  Pullman 
sleeper  "Montana,"  the  first  Pull- 
man car  over  the  Salt  Lake  Route, 
tendered  to  President  Snow  by  Mr. 
Bancroft  of  the  Oregon  Short  Line: 
President  Lorenzo  Snow  and  wife, 
Minnie  J.  Snow,  President  Joseph 
F.  Smith  and  wife,  Alice  K.  Smith; 
President  Franklin  D.  Richards  and 
wife,  Jane  S.  Richards;  Elder  Fran- 
cis M.  Lyman  (who  joined  the  party 
at  Provo)  and  wife;  Elder  Owen 
Woodruff  and  wife;  Presiding 
Bishop  William  B.  Preston;  W.  B. 
Dougall;  President  Seymour  B. 
Young,  Arthur  Winter,  Race  Whit- 
ney, reporter  for  the  Salt  Lake  Her- 
ald, and  the  writer,  reporting  for  the 
Deseret  News.  Others  were  with 
the  party  during  part  of  the  trip,  but 
the  above  are  all  who  made  the  en- 
tire journey,  only  three  of  whom  are 
now  living,  Elder  Arthur  Winter, 
Alice  K.  Smith,  and  the  writer. 

The  party  reached  Modena  early 
the  next  morning,  Tuesday,  May 
16,  and  started  on  the  long,  rough, 
and  rocky  road  to  St.  George,  nearly 
seventy  miles  distant.  The  roads 
were  extremely  rough  and  the  trip 
was  very  trying  on  all  the  members 
of  the  party.  The  distance  from 
Salt  Lake  City  to  St.  George,  which 


was  made  in  26  hours,  had  never  be- 
fore been  traveled  in  so  short  a  time. 
There  were  twelve  conveyances  in 
the  party,  and  the  drive,  by  team, 
from  Modena  to  St.  George  was 
made  in  nine  hours. 

President  Snow  stood  the  trip 
exceptionally  well,  but  was  very 
tired  on  reaching  St.  George.  He 
was  at  once  taken  to  the  home  of 
President  Daniel  D.  McArthur  for 
entertainment  during  the  visit.  Feel- 
ing the  need  of  rest  he  decided  to  re- 
tire early.  He  entered  the  room; 
mother  followed  him,  and  I  followed 
her.  As  I  closed  the  door  and 
turned  towards  father,  I  noticed  that 
he  was  very  weak  and  hardly  able 
to  walk.  I  hurried  to  his  side  and 
assisted  him  to  a  couch.  Just  as  he 
reached  the  couch,  he  fainted.  I 
quickly  got  some  water;  we  rubbed 
it  on  his  forehead  and  wrists  and  af- 
ter a  few  moments  he  regained  con- 
sciousness, opened  his  eyes  and 
looked  about  the  room.  He  closed 
his  eyes  again  and  we  knew  that  he 
was  resting.  Not  wishing  to  disturb 
him,  we  remained  quiet,  not  speaking 
a  word,  although  we  were  very  much 
worried  about  his  condition. 

A  fter  about  fifteen  or  twenty  min- 
utes  father  got  up  from  the 
couch  and  began  walking  up  and 
down  the  room.  He  had  the  most 
painful  and  anxious  expression  on 
his  face  that  I  had  ever  seen,  and  he 
must  have  been  going  through  in- 
tense mental  suffering.  After  pac- 
ing up  and  down  the  floor  several 
times,  he  commenced  talking  aloud 
as  follows:  "Why  have  I  come  to 
St.  George,  and  why  have  I  brought 
so  many  of  the  Church  authorities, 
when  we  are  so  much  needed  at 
home  to  look  after  the  important  af- 
fairs of  the  Church?  Haven't  I  made 
a  mistake?  Why  have  I  come  here?" 
When  the  Lord  instructed  his 
servant  to  go  to  St.  George  the  pur- 
(Continued  on  page  439) 







.he  one-room  school  had 
been  dismissed  for  the  day.  Martha 
Kinney  patiently  listened  to  her  pu- 
pils rehearse  their  Flag  Day  recita- 
tions and  sing  the  familiar  patriotic 
songs.  Finally  it  came  time  for  little 
Emily  to  say  her  piece.  Lovingly 
the  girl  grasped  the  weather-beaten 
school  flag  in  her  hands  and  began, 
"Red  is  for  courage  .  .  ." 

"That  flag  is  pretty  old  and  torn, 
ain't  it?"  observed  Emily's  younger 
sister  Susie. 

"Yes,  it  is,"  the  teacher  agreed 
thoughtfully,  "but  still  it  is  our  coun- 
try's emblem." 

In  her  heart  Miss  Kinney  wished 
she  herself  had  the  price  of  the  new 
flag  which  the  Board  really  could  not 
afford.  Ever  since  she  had  come  to 
the  hill  country  to  teach,  she  had 
known  nothing  but  scrimp  and  save, 
her  small  salary  always  long  over- 
due. It  was  as  if  Lone  Ridge 
school,  like  the  sparse,  worn-out 
land  which  supported  it,  begrudged 
the  few  dollars  required  to  give  its 
children  even  the  rudiments  of  an 

Emily  still  stood  regarding  the 
school  flag  silently. 

"Are  you  a-thinkin'  of  that  new 
dress  you're  aimin'  to  wear  at  the 
exercises,  Emily?"  teased  one  of  the 

Emily  flushed.  Her  reply  was 
quickly  forgotten  when  young  Asa 
burst  breathlessly  into  the  school 

"Have  you  heard  the  news?"  he 
shouted,  knowing  only  too  well  that 
no  one  had.  "Well,  the  President's 
wife  is  comin'  to  Lone  Ridge  to  see 
Eagle  Dam!  The  man  that  tends 
the  railroad  crossin'  says  her  train 
stops  here  for  certain — tomorrow!" 

"And  tomorrow's  Flag  Day!" 
Miss  Kinney  reminded  the  children 
happily.  "The  First  Lady  may  ask 
to  see  our  school.  She  usually  does, 
I  understand,  whenever  her  time  per- 

"But  that  old  flag  .  .  ."  persisted 
little  Susie. 

"Couldn't  we  make  a  new  flag?" 
suggested  Emily  timidly.  "It  ain't 
fittin'  to  let  the  First  Lady  see  such 
an  old  one!" 

"A  flour  sack  would  do  for  the 
stars  and  white  stripes,"  suggested 
a  practical  youngster  named  Amy. 
"My  ma'll  let  me  bring  one." 

"My  ma's  got  a  blue  curtain  that 
she  might  let  me  have,"  added  a  fair- 
haired  girl  named  Lucy. 

"But  what  about  red?"  asked  Asa. 

"Yes,  what  about  red?"  echoed 
the  others. 

"Nobody's  got  red,"  spoke  up 
Lucy  emphatically.  "Nobody  buys 
red.  It  runs  somethin'  awful  in  the 

"You  gotta  have  red,"  insisted 

"Sure,  you  gotta  have  red,"  re- 
peated Amy.  "Doesn't  Emily's  piece 
say,  'Red  is  for  Courage'?" 

The  children  left  for  home  with 
the  question  of  red  still  unsettled. 
Emily  and  her  sister  were  the  last  to 
go.  At  the  door  Emily  whispered 

"Maybe  I  can  get  the  red  stuff, 
Miss  Kinney." 

Susie   overheard,    and    eyed    her 

sister  in  blank  astonishment.  "Emily! 

You  ain't  a-gonna  .  .  .  You  could- 

>  ii 

n  t.  .  .  . 

"You  come  along  home,  Sis,"  in- 

terrupted Emily  sharply.  And  Susie, 
still  blank  and  bewildered,  took  her 
sister's  hand. 

That  evening  to  Miss  Kinney's 
humble  boarding-place  came  Lucy 
with  the  blue  curtain,  Amy  with  the 
flour  sack,  and — marvel  of  marvels 
— Emily  with  seven  strips  of  bright 
red  calico! 

"Seven's  right,  ain't  it,  Miss  Kin- 
ney?" asked  Emily  brightly.  "When 
I  cut  'em  I  kept  a-sayin'  over  the 
song  we'll  sing  tomorrow,  'Six  white 
stripes  and  seven  pretty  red  ones.'  ' 

"Emily,  does  your  mother  know 
you  brought  these?"  asked  Miss 
Kinney  anxiously. 

"Yes,  ma'am,"  honest  Emily  re- 
plied. "And  she  says  I  can  help  you 
sew  a  spell  if  you  want  me  to." 

/\t  dawn  the  next  day  all 
Lone  Ridge  was  agog.  The  Pres- 
ident's wife  was  due  at  noon.  Al- 
ready the  local  people  thronged  the 

The  hours  dragged  on.  Babies 
cried  fretfully  and  their  silent  elders 
shifted  uneasily.  Then  all  at  once 
she  was  there  among  them,  smiling 
and  nodding  her  friendly  greeting. 

The  officials  from  Eagle  Dam 
fussily  escorted  her  on  her  tour  of 
inspection.  Then  straight  to  the 
schoolhouse  she  was  led  by  the 
eager  children,  who  sang  the  na- 
tional anthem  more  lustily  than  they 
had  ever  sung  before. 

An  awkward  hush  followed,  until 
the  honored  guest  took  her  seat  on 
the  rickety  platform.  Then,  one  by 
one,  the  children  sang  their  songs 
and  spoke  their  pieces. 

At  last  came  Emily's  turn.  She 
advanced  gingerly  to  the  front, 
proudly  bearing  before  her  a  gleam- 
ing new  flag. 

The  children  gasped.  The  First 
Lady  smiled  her  encouragement. 
Triumphantly  Emily  touched  a  bril- 
liant red  stripe  and  began: 

"Red  is  for  courage." 

She  spoke  the  last  line  in  a  clear, 
ringing  voice.  The  place  thundered 
with  applause.  The  First  Lady  her- 
self stood  up  and  kissed  the  child's 
(Concluded  on  page  438) 



UJjUUcwl  dlahhi&ML  Qulmsui, 
Juwiv/l  aha  a&.  "(BiUbf  iPuL 


IN   his  tiny  room   in   a   fraternal 
home  in  northern  California,  sits 

a  white-haired,  pink-cheeked  old 
man — William  Harrison  Culmer. 
He  speaks  of  other  days,  not  as 
many  old  men  babble  of  the  past, 
but  with  a  virility  of  expression,  a 
youthful  flash  of  humor,  and  an 
amazing  accuracy  for  detail.  He 
has  been  a  maker  of  history,  and 
although  his  days  of  physical  ac- 
tivity are  past,  he  is  still  alert  and 
keenly  interested  in  present-day 
world  events. 

In  1852,  Mr.  Culmer  was  born 
on  the  Bay  of  Naples  aboard  a  three- 
masted  schooner  of  which  his  father 
was  the  skipper.  The  land  home  of 
the  family  was  within  a  stone's 
throw  of  the  great  London  docks,  in 
quarters  over  the  Hagenback  Zoo. 
To  these  humble  rooms  came  such 
men  as  Charles  Dickens,  the  novel- 
ist, and  Oscar  B.  Young,  the  sixth 
son  of  Brigham  Young. 

As  a  boy,  Culmer  was  better 
known  as  "Billy  the  Cartwheeler," 
the  title  having  been  given  him  as 
the  result  of  a  competitive  contest 
in  the  Crystal  Palace,  London,  be- 
cause of  his  ability  to  turn  one  hun- 
dred consecutive  cartwheels,  which 
exceeded  the  performance  of  any 
other  boy  in  England.  The  iron 
strength  of  his  wrists  to  this  day 
testifies  to  his  prowess. 

His  autobiography,  now  in  the 
hands  of  a  London  publisher,  is  en- 
titled "Billy  the  Cartwheeler,"  con- 
taining reminiscences  of  Charles 
Dickens  and  the  London  Slums  of 
his  day,  "by  the  last  of  the  Dickens' 

His  impish  personality  and  pre- 
cociousness  easily  won  him  promi- 
nence. He  stood  at  the  head  of  his 
class  of  two  hundred  seventy  boys 
in  the  Ragged  School  which  he  at- 
tended, and,  when  the  World's  Fair 
of  1862  was  staged  at  the  Crystal 

Palace,  he  headed  one  of  the  groups 
of  the  25,000  boys  who  made  up  the 
chorus.  Mr.  Dickens  was  one  of 
the  patrons  of  the  Fair,  and  it  was 
there  that  he  first  came  in  contact 
with  "Billy  the  Cartwheeler." 

Arriving  early  at  rehearsal  one 
day,  Dickens  encountered  Billy  turn- 
ing his  cartwheels  down  the  cor- 
ridor. Finding  himself  with  an  audi- 
ence, the  child  quickly  left  off  cart- 
wheeling, and  stood  innocently  gaz- 
ing at  a  great  oil  painting  on  the 
wall.  Noticing  the  resemblance  be- 
tween the  picture  and  the  man  who 
had  approached  (for  the  portrait 
truly  was  of  Dickens ) ,  the  boy  cov- 
ered his  embarrassment  by  plunging 
into  conversation.  Culmer  well 
knew  his  Oliver  Twist,  which  was 
then  being  hawked  on  the  street 
corners  each  Saturday  noon,  at  one 
penny  each  installment  of  the  serial. 

"It's  a  very  good  picture  of  you, 
Mr.  Dickens,  and  I  know  the  exact 
chimney  where  Bill  Sykes  hung." 

Staggered  by  hearing  the  boy  say 
he  knew  the  exact  location  of  some- 
thing which,  of  course,  never  existed, 
he  asked:  "Where  did  you  say  that 

"Do  you  know  where  the  Gray- 
hound  Bridge  is,  Sir?"  continued 

"Indeed,  yes,"  was  the  reply. 

"Well,  Sir,  do  you  know  the  big 
redbrick  house  on  the  other  side  of 
the  race?" 


"And  the  big  chimney  on  top  of 
it?  The  only  chimney  on  the 

"Yes,  the  only  chimney  on  the 
redbrick  house." 

"Well,  it  was  right  there  that  Bill 
Sykes  hung,"  triumphantly  an- 
nounced the  lad. 

"Well,  well,"  chuckled  Dickens, 
"isn't  it  strange?  I  had  almost  for- 
gotten where  it  was  myself." 


This  incident  led  to  the  inclusion 
of  "Billy  the  Cartwheeler"  in  an  in- 
timate group  of  young  proteges 
which  became  known  as  "The  Dick- 
ens' Boys." 

At  one  time  when  Billy  had  been 
called  to  meet  his  benefactor, 
Dickens  kept  the  appointment  in 
company  with  William  Wilkie  Col- 
lins, the  peer  of  all  detective  writers, 
who  later  became  the  novelist's  son- 

"And  is  this  your  boy?"  Collins 

"Not  my  son,"  was  the  reply,  "but 
one  of  my  boys,"  and  it  was  in  this 
fashion  that  Mr.  Culmer  was  always 
introduced.  At  one  time,  for  three 
months,  he  was  a  house  guest  at  the 
home  of  the  novelist. 

The  Culmer  family  also  main- 
tained a  close  friendship  with  Oscar 
B.  Young,  then  an  ordinary  mis- 
sionary, who  had  been  sent  abroad 
to  assist  his  elder  brother,  Brigham 
Young,  Jr.,  in  the  work  of  the  Eu- 
ropean Mission  of  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints, 
with  headquarters  in  Liverpool. 

In  1863,  the  Culmers,  who  were 
loyal  Mormon  converts,  crossed  the 
Atlantic  in  the  emigrant  ship 
Hudson,  an  800  ton  barque  twice 
condemned  as  unseaworthy.  Sev- 
enty days  were  required  for  the 
crossing.  Trans-shipping  from  New 
York  in  cattle  cars,  they  were  joined 
at  the  Missouri  River  by  westward- 
bound  immigrant  groups  numbering 
about  one  thousand  persons  from 
eastern  Europe  and  our  own  south- 
ern states.  Many  were  en  route  to 
Utah,  others  to  the  California  gold 

The  journey  was  an  eventful  one; 
Indians  were  encountered  at  North 
Platte,  Whiskey  Gap,  and  Cache 
Junction.  Culmer  mentions  with 
pride  that  he  was  given  a  cayuse  as 
{Concluded  on  page  436) 

The  story  of  our 


General  Superintendent  of  the  Deseret 
Sunday  School  Union  and  First  Assist- 
ant  Chairman   of   the   Church   Music 

xxx.    'Ssmih^  iiohsL 
ihsL  S^cAiui  SihoitL 

Words  by  WILLIAM  W.  PHELPS 
Music  by  THOMAS  C.  GRIGGS 

T'his  hymn,  used  by  the  Salt  Lake 
Tabernacle  Choir  as  a  theme 
song  for  its  nationwide  broadcast, 
which  begins  its  tenth  year  on  the 
air  this  month,  was  written  by  the 
early  Church  poet,  William  W. 
Phelps,  a  short  sketch  of  whose 
life  was  printed  in  The  Improve- 
ment Era  for  March,  1937.  It 
was  included  in  the  collection 
made  by  Emma  Smith  in  1835 
under  divine  authority.  There 
is  no  dramatic  story  known  con- 
cerning the  origin  of  the  hymn.  It 
was  no  doubt  written  while  Brother 
Phelps  was  under  the  spell  of  the 
Sabbath  and  the  solemn  sacrament. 
It  expresses  gratitude  for  the  return 
of  the  day  of  rest  and  its  attendant 
blessings,  thoughts  on  eternal  life, 
the  great  reward,  and  the  day  of 
sacrament  in  remembrance  of  the 
Lord,  a  day  for  gifts  of  broken 
hearts  and  willing  sacrifices — a  type 
of  blessed  things  to  come,  when  the 
Saints  will  be  gathered  in  eternity, 
to  praise  God  in  sweet  accord.  It 
sings  of  repentance  and  forgiveness, 
enjoins  all  to  fast  and  pray,  as  God 
ordains,  for  his  goodness  and  his 
love  while  the  Sabbath  remains. 


The  Tune  and  Its  Composer 

The  tune  for  this  devotional  hymn 
has  been  made  popular  as  the  theme 
or  signature  of  the  coast-to-coast 
KSL-Columbia  network  broadcast 
of  the  Tabernacle  choir  each  Sunday 
morning.  It  was  selected  from  421 
hymns  contained  in  Latter-day  Saint 
Hymns.  The  composer  was  the  late 
Thomas  C.  Griggs,  an  English  con- 
vert to  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ 


By    William    W.  Phelps 

Gently  raise  the  sacred  strain, 
For  the  Sabbath's  come  again, 
That  man  may  rest, 
And  return  his  thanks  to  God, 
For  His  blessings  to  the  blest. 

Holy  day,  devoid  of  strife; 
Let  us  seek  eternal  life, 
That  great  reward, 
And  partake  the  Sacrament 
In  remembrance  of  our  Lord. 

Sweetly  swells  the  solemn  sound, 
While  we  bring  our  gifts  around 
Of  broken  hearts, 
And  a  willing  sacrifice, 
Showing  what  His  grace  imparts. 

Happy  type  of  things  to  come, 

When  the  Saints  are  gathered  home, 

To  praise  the  Lord, 

In  eternity  of  bliss, 

All  as  one  with  sweet  accord. 

Holy,  holy  is  the  Lord, 
Precious,  precious  is  His  word; 
Repent  and  live; 

Though  your  sins  be  crimson  red, 
Oh,  repent,  and  He'll  forgive. 

Softly  sing  the  joyful  lay, 

For  the  Saints  to  fast  and  pray! 

As  God  ordains. 

For  His  goodness  and  His  love, 

While  the  Sabbath  day  remains. 


of  Latter-day  Saints.  He  was  born 
in  the  town  of  Dover,  County  of 
Kent.  Shortly  after  his  baptism 
May  17,  1856,  he  and  his  mother 
emigrated  to  America,  arriving  in 
Boston,  July  11,  1857.  It  was  here 
he  first  became  interested  in  music, 
joining  a  brass  band  in  that  city. 
At  the  close  of  the  Civil  War, 
mother  and  son  crossed  the  plains  in 
Captain  Joseph  Home's  Company, 



arriving  in  Salt  Lake  City,  Septem- 
ber 13,  1861.  He  played  in  John 
Eardley's  and  Mark  Croxall's 
bands.  During  the  early  sixties  he 
was  employed  by  Walker  Brothers 
in  their  branch  home  at  Camp  Floyd. 
There  he  joined  a  class  in  vocal 
training  and  became  leader  of  the 
choir  at  that  place.  He  dated  his 
career  as  a  choir  leader  from  that 
time.  Returning  to  Salt  Lake  City 
he  joined  the  Tabernacle  Choir  and 
sang  under  five  of  the  leaders- — C.  J. 
Thomas,  Robert  Sands,  Ebenezer 
Beesley,  George  Careless,  and  Evan 
Stephens.  In  April,  1880,  while  on 
a  mission  to  Great  Britain,  he  was 
named  as  conductor  of  the  Taber- 
nacle Choir,  with  Ebenezer  Beesley 
as  his  assistant  who  conducted  dur- 
ing Brother  Griggs'  absence.  Upon 
his  return,  Brother  Griggs  graciously 
suggested  that  Brother  Beesley  con- 
tinue as  conductor  with  himself  as 
assistant,  and  that  was  done.  For 
ten  years  previous  to  his  mission 
and  two  years  upon  his  return,  he 
directed  the  Fifteenth  Ward  Choir, 
then  one  of  the  best  in  Salt  Lake 

From  1874  to  1891,  Elder  Griggs 
was  superintendent  of  the  Fifteenth 
Ward  Sunday  School  and  from 
1891  to  1901  superintendent  of  the 
Salt  Lake  Stake.  In  1889,  he  was  sus- 
tained as  a  member  of  the  Deseret 
Sunday  School  Union  Board  which 
position  he  held  until  his  death.  He 
and  Brother  Beesley  compiled  the 
first  Deseret  Sunday  School  Song 
Book  and  assisted  in  the  compilation 
of  the  Latter-day  Saints  Psalmody. 
In  May,  1900,  he  was  named  busi- 
ness manager  for  the  Union,  which 
position  he  held  until  his  death.  He 
was  an  indefatigable  worker  and 
did  much  to  improve  music  in  the 
Church.    He  died  August  12,  1903. 


iphjoloqhafduxL  dtiqhliqhLiu  1$  ihsL  Qwul  Qoft^MnoL 

1.  Mass  dance  of  1,000  couples  on  the  Saltair  Pavilion,  under  the  direction 
of  the  M.  I.  A. 

2.  Canadian  delegates,  Scouts  from  McGrath  District  Council,  in  a  mo- 
ment of  relaxation.    Left,  David  Anderson,  right,  Jay  Christensen. 

3.  M.  I.  A.  Conference  Principals:  Left  to  right:  Augustus  D.  Zanzig, 
director  of  the  Music  Festival;  Miss  Myrtle  Leonard,  guest  soloist; 
President  Heber  J.  Grant. 

4.  Pres.  Lucy  G.  Cannon  of  the  Y.  W.  M.  I.  A.,  and  Supt.  George  Q. 
Morris  of  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.,  en  route  to  one  of  the  convention  meetings. 

5.  Part  of  the  crowd  gathered  for  the  Summer  Institute  at  Memory  Grove, 
City  Creek  Canyon. 

6.  National  Boy  Scout  Leaders  at  M.  I.  A.  Conference  gathered  at  the 
Brigham  Young  Monument.  Left  to  right:  Raymond  O.  Hansen,  Dr. 
Ray  O.  Wyland,  and  Edward  L.  Curtis. 

7.  Welcoming  Canadian  Delegates.  Left  to  right:  Superintendent  May 
Anderson,  of  the  Primary  Association;  LeGrand  Piepgrass,  king  scout 
of  Canada;  Charles  S.  Matkin,  Boy  Scout  Commissioner  of  Canada; 
Superintendent  George  Q.  Morris,  of  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.;  and  President 
Lucy  G.  Cannon  of  the  Y.  W.  M.  I.  A. 

8.  Scouts  of  the  Salt  Lake  Council  Impressively  Carry  American  Flags 
as  they  drill  in  the  University  Stadium  in  Preparation  for  the  Cavalcade 
of  Scouting. 




Of  Brigham  Young  Universitv 



:  Jtah's    first    serious    trouble    between 
Whites  and  Redmen  grew  out  of  slave 
traffic  and  began  eight  years  before  the 
Civil  War  broke  out. 


Slavery  brought  on  a  war  in 
Utah  eight  years  before  the 
Civil  War.  This  early  strug- 
gle is  interesting  for  other  reasons. 
It  was  Utah's  first  sustained  conflict 
between  the  Pioneers  and  the  In- 
dians. And,  differing  from  most 
frontier  fighting,  it  apparently  grew 
out  of  the  white  men's  kindness  to 
the  redmen. 

At  the  beginning  of  1853  the  good 
treatment  that  the  Mormons  gave 
the  Indians  seemed  productive  only 
of  good.  Many  redmen,  after  one 
or  two  minor  outbreaks,  were  labor- 
ing diligently  and  even  happily  to 
help  the  whites  become  established 
in  the  Basin  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake. 
As  late  as  the  spring  of  '53  Brigham 
Young  received  such  morsels  of 
news  as  this  from  various  nooks 
of  the  new  Territory: 

The  Walkers  (Indians)  work  first  rate; 
you  can  see  them  all  over  Nephi  carrying 
water,  chopping  wood,  assisting  to  haul 
wood,  and  doing  other  duties.  They  had 
helped  much  in  harvesting  crops  the  pre- 
vious autumn. 

The  natives  .  .  .  look  upon  us  as  men 
that  are  sent  by  the  Great  Spirit  to  amelior- 
ate their  present  though  wretched  con- 
dition .  .  .  They  herd  our  flocks  and  faith- 
fully labor.  .  .  . 

This  report  came  from  John  D. 

Lee  at  Fort  Harmony.  He  also  de- 
clared the  Piedes  cut  pickets  as  well 
as  white  men  could. 

What  destroyed  this  happy  part- 
nership in  many  areas  was,  to  a 
significant  extent,  the  disapproval 
with  which  the  Latter-day  Saints 
viewed  the  slave  traffic  between  the 
Indians  and  the  Mexicans.  In  the 
footsteps  of  Fathers  Dominguez  and 
Escalante  had  come  less  unselfish 
Spaniards.  These  later  comers 
bought  squaws  and  children  which 
the  Utes  captured  from  weaker 

This  traffic  brought  the  two  most 
powerful  and  picturesque  figures  of 
earliest  Utah  history  into  conflict. 
As  governor  and  Indian  superin- 
tendent of  the  Territory  of  Utah, 
Brigham  Young  forbade  the  slave 
trade  because  it  violated  the  laws  of 
the  territory  and  often  placed  guns 
and  ammunition  in  the  hands  of  un- 
ruly tribes.  As  a  far-roving  and 
successful  war  chief  who  often  took 
captives,  Chief  Walker  approved 
the  trade  for  what  it  brought  him 
and  his  under-chiefs.  He  wanted 
no  interference. 

Walker  looms  head  and  shoulders 
above  the  rest  of  Utah's  Indian 
leaders.  He  was  called  "king  of  the 
Indians  in  these  mountains"  by 
Brigham  Young.  His  name  brought 
shivers  to  Indians  and  even  whites 
from  New  Mexico  to  California,  so 
boldly  and  swiftly  did  he  strike.  He 
ranged  as  far  south  as  Sonora  and 
Chihuahua.  He  rode  north  to  fight 
the  Snakes  and  Shoshones.  Once, 
for  example,  he  raided  ranches  in 
Southern  California  and  came  trot- 
ting home  with  a  thousand  captured 
horses  thundering  before  him  as 
proof  of  his  triumph. 

f^ESPiTE  occasional  protestations 
of  friendship,  Walker  had 
wanted  to  fight  the  Mormons  from 
the  beginning.  But  Sowiette,  the 
good  chief,  had  twice  thwarted  him 
by  withholding  needed  support  and 
by  warning  the  whites. 

Also  Walker  had  held  sporadic 
hopes  of  making  the  Mormons  his 
allies     against     rival     tribes.       But 

Rows    of   cabins    with    log    palisades    filling    gaps 
between  formed  some  of  the  first  forts  in  Utah. 

THE     IMPROVEMENT    ERA,    JULY,    1938 


when  he  proposed  such  an  alliance 
to  Brigham  Young,  he  met  a  firm 
refusal  that  infuriated  him. 

Then  Brigham  Young  interfered 
in  the  slave  trade.  A  score  of  Span- 
iards, led  by  a  certain  Pedro  Leon, 
had  appeared  in  Sanpete  valley  late 
in  1851  and  had  begun  trading 
horses  and  other  valuables  for  In- 
dian children  and  firearms.  Their 
intention  was  to  sell  the  youngsters 
into  slavery  in  Mexico  and  to  trade 
the  weapons  to  the  truculent  Nava- 
jos.  They  sometimes  sold  guns  to 
Utah  Indians,  if  they  could  drive 
good  bargains.  It  was  a  many- 
sided  traffic,  according  to  Dr.  Wm. 
J.  Snow,  authority  on  Western  His- 

These  traders  held  a  license  to 
trade  with  the  Utah  Indians.  It 
was  apparently  signed  by  James  S. 
Calhoun,  governor  and  Indian  su- 
perintendent of  New  Mexico.  Two 
other  such  bands  of  traders  carrying 
similar  permits  were  reported  to  be 
operating  in  Utah. 

Brigham  Young  would  not  recog- 
nize such  licenses  in  his  territory, 
and  he  would  not  issue  Utah  licenses 
contenancing  the  slave  trade.  He 
ordered  the  Spaniards  to  stop  their 
traffic.  They  laughed  at  him.  They 
had  carried  on  the  trade  when  Utah 
belonged  to  Mexico,  and  they  pre- 
ferred to  continue. 

The  affair  reached  a  head  later 
that  winter.  Pedro  Leon's  band  was 
arrested  and  brought  to  trial,  first 
before  a  justice  of  the  peace  in 
Manti,  Utah,  and  then  before  Judge 
Zerubbabel  Snow  of  the  first  district 
court.  The  Spaniards  were  found 
guilty.  The  nine  slaves  they  had 
when  arrested — a  squaw  and  eight 
children — were  freed  and  the  Span- 
iards were  commanded  to  leave. 

They  did  not  all  leave  the  Terri- 
tory. Some  skulked  about,  inciting 
the  Indians  against  the  Pioneers. 
They  no  doubt  ascribed  the  action 
of  the  Mormons  to  selfish  motives. 
They  probably  pointed  out  that  the 
Mormons  themselves  had  purchased 
Indian  children. 

This  was  true.  Several  times  In- 
dians had  attempted  to  barter  cap- 
tive children  to  the  settlers  for  guns 
and  other  articles.  And  they  usually 
succeeded  in  driving  a  bargain  when 
they  made  it  clear  that  rejection 
often  meant  torture  or  slow  starva- 
tion for  the  children.  On  at  least 
two  occasions,  young  captives  were 
tortured  at  the  very  doors  of  the 
settlers  who  had  declined  to  buy 
them.  And  the  whites,  at  last  un- 
able to  endure  the  shrieks  of  the 
victims,  paid  what  the  captors 

Nevertheless,  the  cunning  words 
and  the  sneers  of  the  Spaniards 
seemed  to  be  having  effect,  at  least 
on  the  chiefs  who  profited  from  the 
traffic.  A  hint  of  trouble  came  early 
in  the  spring  of  1853.  An  express 
arrived  in  Salt  Lake  City  from  Iron 
county  with  news  that  Chief  Walker 
had  met  white  men  pursuing  Indian 
thieves.  The  chief  had  placed  him- 
self in  the  path  of  the  posse  and  with 
a  menacing  manner  had  told  them  to 
go  home. 

T"Vmick    B,    Huntington,    inter- 
preter, sought  a  peace  talk  with 
Walker  in  Parowan.     But  the  chief 
had  hurried  off  to  "Sampitch"  over 

the  Spanish  Trail  and  could  not  be 
overtaken.  On  the  way  north  from 
Parowan,  Huntington  found  that 
Chief  Peteetneet  and  his  band  had 
gone  up  Provo  canyon  to  wait  and 
"see  how  the  battle  went."  What 
battle?     Something  was  in  the  air. 

Another  ominous  hint  came  late 
in  April,  1853.  Visiting  Provo  on 
the  twentieth,  Brigham  Young  was 
brusquely  accosted  by  a  stranger 
who  demanded  a  private  interview. 
Suspicious,  the  governor  refused. 
Later  he  learned  that  the  man  was  a 
former  New  Yorker  who  had  lived 
in  Mexico  for  several  years  and  had 
come  here  to  buy  Indian  children  to 
trade  to  the  Mexicans. 

When  reminded  that  such  traffic 
was  contrary  to  law,  the  stranger 
had  impudently  retorted  that 
"Catching  comes  before  hanging." 

"He  made  some  threats  and 
boasted  that  he  had  four  hundred 
Mexicans  on  the  Sevier  awaiting  his 
order,"  reported  Governor  Young. 

Could  this  be  true?  Brigham 
Young  did  not  think  so.  But  know- 
ing was  better  than  guessing.  In 
a  proclamation  issued  at  Provo  on 
April  23,  1853,  he  struck  at  the  slave 
trade  and  ordered  Captain  W.  M. 
Wall  with  a  detachment  of  thirty 
men  to  ride  southward  "through  the 
entire  extent  of  the  settlements,  re- 
connoitering  the  country  and  direct- 
ing the  inhabitants  to  be  on  their 
guard  against  .  .  .  surprises."  They 
were  also  "authorized  and  directed 
to  arrest  .  .  .  every  strolling  Mexican 
party,    and    those    associating   with 

IN  1854. 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     1938 

them,     and    other    suspicious    per- 
sons .  .  ." 

Other  measures  which  he  took  at 
this  time  to  "preserve  peace,  quell 
i:he  Indians,  and  secure  the  lives  and 
property  of  the  citizens  of  the  Ter- 
ritory" were  these: 

The  militia  of  the  Territory  are  hereby 
instructed  to  be  in  readiness  to  march  to 
any  point  ...  at  a  moment's  notice. 

All  Mexicans  now  in  the  Territory  are 
required  to  remain  quiet  in  the  settlements 
.  .  .  and  the  officers  .  .  .  are  hereby  di- 
rected to  keep  them  in  safe  custody,  treating 
them  with  kindness  and  supplying  their 
necessary  wants. 

More  disquieting  news  came  to 
Brig  ham  Young  and  his  party  as 
they  continued  southward  into  San- 
pete valley.  They  learned  at  Manti 
on  April  27,  1853,  that  the  Chief 
Arrapene,  brother  of  Walker,  had 
left  the  day  before,  very  angry.  All 
the  other  Indians  had  also  gone 
away  in  a  great  hurry  that  morning. 
With  hostile  actions  the  Indians  had 
kept  the  people  of  Allred's  settle- 
ment in  alarm  all  night. 

Three  Indians  crept  into  Manti 
fort  one  midnight.  When  chal- 
lenged they  asserted  they  brought 
news  from  Walker  and  Arrapene, 
who  "wanted  peace."  Brigham 
Young  sent  gifts  of  clothing,  tobac- 
co, and  food  by  these  messengers, 
and  told  the  chiefs  to  behave  them- 
selves. But  he  warned  the  settlers 
to  be  prepared  for  any  emergency. 

He  learned  that  one  hundred  fifty 
Yampa  Utes  had  gone  over  to 
"Walker's  camp."  These  Yampas, 
it  seemed,  and  Walker's  warriors 
were  the  "four  hundred  Mexicans" 
on  the  Sevier.  Reported  Governor 

On  our  return  we  learned  at  Nephi  that 
Batteez,  Indian  chief,  had  ordered  all  his 
Indians  to  flee  to  the  mountains.  Offense 
was  taken  by  the  Indians  at  my  Proclama- 
tion which  forbade  the  traffic  in  Indian 
children.  The  Utahs  were  in  the  habit 
of  stealing  children  from  the  Piedes 
and  other  weak  tribes  and  trading  them  to 
the  Mexicans;  when  the  parents  of  the 
stolen  children  resisted,  the  Utes  would  kill 
them  rather  than  relinquish  the  children. 
Batteez  had  been  accustomed  to  this 

"Drigham  Young  was  not  daunted 
by  the  threats  of  war.  Speaking 
in  the  Salt  Lake  tabernacle  on  his 
return,  he  frankly  admitted  that 
Walker  held  a  strong  position 
among  the  Utah  Indians.  But  he 
said:  "If  he  becomes  hostile  and 
wishes  to  commit  depredations  upon 
the  persons  or  property  of  this  peo- 

ple, he  shall  be  wiped  out  of  exist- 
ence and  every  man  that  will  follow 

Captain  Wall  with  his  militiamen 
returned  from  his  scouting  tour  of 
the  south  on  May  11,  1853.  He  had 
learned  at  Parowan  that  Walker 
and  his  bands  apparently  were  con- 
gregating on  the  east  branch  of  the 
Sevier  River.  All  Piede  and  Pah- 
vant chiefs  with  whom  Wall  had 
parleyed,  told  him  the  same  story: 
They  were  glad  to  have  the  Mor- 
mons among  them  but  they  feared 
Walker.  He  stole  their  children, 
and  when  he  could  not  steal  them 
he  killed  their  parents  and  sold  the 
children  to  the  Mexicans. 

"From  the  best  information.  .  ." 
Wall  concluded,  "Walker  is  willing 
to  live  in  peace,  if  he  can  have  his 
own  way  in  stealing  other  Indians' 


children  to  sell  them  to  the  Mexicans 
for  guns  and  ammunition,  or  if  we 
will  buy  those  children  of  him  and 
give  him  guns  and  ammunition,  to 
enable  him  to  continue  his  rob- 

With  customary  audacity  and 
perfidy,  Walker  strode  into  Gov- 
ernor Young's  office  on  July  2,  1853. 
He  feigned  friendliness. 

But  President  Young  was  not  de- 
ceived. Neither  were  some  of  the 
other  white  leaders.  They  fretted 
about  the  poor  defenses  of  many  of 
the  tiny  southern  settlements,  for 
they  sensed  danger.  The  tinder  was 
being  gathered  for  the  spark. 

Indian  flint  and  Pioneer  steel 
clashed  on  July  17,   1853.     Plenty 

of  sparks  flew.  Oddly,  this  fulmi- 
nating incident,  like  the  underlying 
cause  of  the  coming  war,  grew  from 
a  white  man's  attempted  kindness 
to  an  Indian.  This  is  the  way  it 
came  about: 

A  group  of  Indians  approached 
James  Ivie's  home  near  Spring- 
ville  on  July  17,  1853.  A  squaw 
entered  the  cabin  and  bartered  some 
trout  to  Mrs.  Ivie  for  flour.  The 
squaw's  mate  arrived  as  the  terms 
of  the  exchange  were  agreed  on. 
He  railed  at  his  spouse  for  driving 
too  easy  a  bargain.  At  last  he 
hurled  her  to  the  floor,  leaped  at  her, 
stamped,  and  kicked  her, 

James  Ivie  came  running.  He 
relished  a  fight,  some  old-timers  say. 
But  in  this  instance  he  was  actu- 
ated by  humane  motives.  According 
to  Ivie's  story,  he  jerked  the  buck 
away  from  the  moaning  squaw. 

The  Indian  attempted  to  shoot 
Ivie.  The  white  man  siezed  the  bar- 
rel of  the  gun  and  wrenched  it  so 
violently  that  he  broke  the  weapon. 
He  staggered  back  clutching  the  gun 
barrel.  Swinging  it  like  a  club,  he 
dealt  the  threatening  Ute  a  blow  on 
the  head.  The  Indian  crumpled  to 
the  floor  as  if  dead. 

Another  Indian  shot  an  arrow 
that  passed  through  the  shoulder  of 
Ivie's  hunting  shirt.  Ivie  brought 
his  iron  war  club  down  on  this 
brave's  head  also,  and  laid  him 
senseless  on  the  floor. 

Then  the  squaw  did  what  most 
women  would  do  to  an  intruder  in 
a  domestic  quarrel — she  upheld  her 
husband.  Snatching  up  a  stick  of 
firewood,  she  struck  her  rescuer 
across  the  mouth.  She,  too,  received 
a  blow  from  the  gun  barrel,  and  she 
joined  her  unconscious  tribesmen  on 
the  floor.  The  upshot  was  that  her 
husband  died  a  few  hours  later. 

Another  incident  occurred  at 
about  this  time  which  helped  stir 
the  wrath  of  the  reds.  An  Indian 
shot  a  fellow  tribesman  at  Provo, 
probably  accidentally.  But  the  man 
responsible  fled  and  his  act  was  laid 
to  the  whites. 

Wild  for  vengeance,  the  Indians 
rejected  peace  offerings  of  beef  and 
clothing.  Chief  Walker  was  camp- 
ed near  Payson  with  a  large  band. 
One  night  Indians  crept  into  Payson 
and  shot  Alexander  Kiel,  a  guard. 
Then  the  band  hurried  southward  to 
lodge  their  families  in  a  place  of 
security  for  the  impending  struggle. 

The  Walker  War  had  begun. 


$IwAili^  out  d$.  ihsL  d&MJd, 



There  are  those  who  say  that 
wild  camels  roam  the  Mojave 
Desert;  that  a  huge  "snow 
white"  one  leads  a  pack  of  these 
ungainly  "ships  of  the  desert"  across 
the  vast  solitudes  of  our  southwest's 
most  arid  country. 

Just  how  true  are  the  occasional 
vivid  tales  told  by  old  prospectors 
of  seeing  these  supposedly  long- 
vanished  creatures  far  out  on  the 
wastelands?  Is  there  really  a  rem- 
nant of  that  early  government  ex- 
periment remaining? 

These  are  questions  that  might 
well  exist  in  the  minds  of  many, 
coming  on  the  heels  of  the  announce- 
ment, recently,  of  an  old  "desert  rat" 
who  allegedly  saw  his  pet  burro 
elope  with  a  band  of  the  humped 
animals,  led  by  an  enormous  white 
one.  Of  course,  everyone  knows 
that  the  loneliness  and  eternal  si- 
lence of  the  desert,  coupled  with 
the  long  ( many  times  disappointing ) 
years  spent  in  search  of  the  illusive 
"strike,"  is  conducive  to  at  least 
some  of  the  strange  sights  reported 
by  members  of  this  grizzled  fra- 
ternity. Yet  the  desert  holds  many 
incredible  truths — and  mirages! 

While  it  is  a  matter  of  conjecture 
whether  or  not  any  descendants  of 
that  camel  venture  of  the  '50's  are 
to  be  found  today,  it  should  be  noted 
that  the  government,  in  1855, 
brought  a  ship  load  of  them  from 
Asia  Minor,  at  the  insistence  of 
Gen.  George  H.  Crossman.  The 
latter  was  convinced  that  camels 
were  the  only  sensible  mode  of  trans- 
portation across  that  "vast  Sahara 
which  could  not  be  traversed  by 
mules,  horses,  or  oxen."  Mr.  Cross- 
man  is  credited  with  having  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  using  camels  in 
the  Southwest  as  early  as  1848. 

At  that  time,  California  existed  in 

the  minds  of  most  persons  as  some 
strange,  mythical  place,  fabulous  al- 
most as  the  Seven  Cities  of  Cibola, 
that  lured  the  early  Spaniards  west- 
ward in  the  16th  century.  Today, 
that  eternal  lure  still  exists  in  the 
minds  of  countless  thousands,  not 
one  whit  diminished  since  the  days 
of  the  bold  conquistadores. 

The  "camel  craze"  swept  the 
country.  It  was  laughed  at  and 
joked  about.  While  the  House  of 
Representatives  was  ridiculing  the 
bill,  introduced  by  General  Cross- 
man,  for  an  appropriation  to  import 
a  few  camels  for  experimental  pur- 
poses, Jefferson  Davis,  the  deeply 
interested  War  Secretary,  succeeded 
in  obtaining  the  appropriation. 

Mr.  Davis  pointed  out  the  great 
importance  of  these  beasts  of  burden 
in  Asia  and  Africa,  and  their  valu- 
able service  to  the  British  in  East 
India.  He  was  convinced  that  they 
could  be  equally  valuable  in  our  own 
arid  frontier,  and  very  effective 
against  hostile  Indians. 

Some  of  the  newspapers  became 
earnest  in  advocating  the  plan  of 
forming  a  "dromedary  express,  to 
carry  the  fast  mail  and  to  bring 
eastern  newspapers  and  letters  to 
California  in  fifteen  days."  The 
arguments  backing  the  proposed 
scheme  at  the  time  were  entirely 
logical.  It  was  even  indicated  that 
"fast  camel  passenger  trains"  would 
be  plying  between  the  Missouri 
River  and  the  Pacific  Coast.  Camels 
there  must  certainly  be! 

There  was  his  famous  reputation 
of  going  for  as  long  as  ten  days 
without  water.  It  was  a  long  way 
"between  drinks"  from  the  Missouri 
to  the  Colorado  River,  but  not  too 
long  for  the  camel,  who  could  board 
himself  on  sagebrush,  cover  30  to 
50   miles   a   day  with   a   load  of  a 

thousand  pounds,  and  deliver  his 
freight  and  passengers  in  the  Cali- 
fornia coast  town  in  two  weeks  from 
starting  time. 

At  length,  in  1854,  a  Congres- 
sional appropriation  of  $30,000 
was  obtained — which  was  the  initial 
move  in  America's  first  and  last  ex- 
periment with  camels  as  a  means  of 
transportation.  A  purchasing  expe- 
dition headed  by  Major  Henry  C. 
Wayne  was  conducted  to  Egypt  and 
the  Levant.  "The  history  of  the 
Army  abounds  in  unusual  duties 
performed  by  its  officers,  but  few 
compare  with  Major  Wayne's  mis- 
sion," writes  Robert  Gainsburgh. 
"It  required  an  international  diplo- 
mat, an  accomplished  auctioneer, 
and  an  obedient  soldier,  and  mostly 
the  patience  of  Job." 

His  ship  reached  Tunis  in  August, 
1855.  After  acquiring  three  camels 
there,  he  proceeded  to  Malta,  where 
news  of  his  coming  had  preceded 
him.  On  his  arrival  there  he  found 
every  sore-backed  camel  in  Asia 
Minor  doctored  up  and  waiting  on 
the  coast,  to  be  "offered  to  the 
United  States  at  a  grievous  sacri- 
fice of  ten  times  its  value." 

A  half-dozen  other  seaports  were 
touched,  and  each  in  turn  had  its 
motley  camel  herd  waiting  for  him. 
But  at  last  the  purchasing  was  com- 
plete, and  thirty-four  irritable  and 
sea-sick  animals  and  their  native 
attendants  comprised  the  expedition 
when  it  finally  arrived  at  Indianola, 
Texas.  On  the  voyage  there  had 
been  six  births  and  four  deaths. 
The  Texans,  many  of  whom  had 
perhaps  never  seen  a  camel,  turned 
out  in  large  numbers  to  witness  the 
unloading  of  this  peculiar  cargo,  of 
which  someone  has  written: 

(Continued  on  page  436) 


OifwL  WiuL  WmC' 


±  t 

riHEY  were  a  little  too  honest 
to  steal,  too  proud  to  beg,  and 
too  d —  lazy  to  work,"  opined 
an  editor  recently  in  speaking  of 
Cayuga  County's  "three  wise  men." 
Over  in  Cayuga  County,  New  York 
they  claim  Isaac  Singer  (Singer 
Sewing  Machines),  Henry  Wells 
(Wells  Fargo  Express),  and  Brig- 
ham  Young  as  their  own. 

Port  Byron  and  Auburn  are  the 
principal  cities  in  the  locale  of  this 
narrative.  Rich  is  the  word  for  that 
section  if  you  are  interested  in  the 
history  of  our  early  Mormon  leader. 
Recently,  a  group  of  interesting 
things  were  found  by  a  number  who 
were  touring  the  Eastern  States  Mis- 
sion. Dr.  John  A.  Widtsoe,  Sister 
Leah  D.  Widtsoe,  who  is  a  grand- 
daughter of  President  Brigham 
Young,  and  President  Frank  Evans 
of  the  Eastern  States  Mission  were 
in  the  party. 

In  Port  Byron  we  visited  the  fam- 
ily of  Mr.  W.  H.  Weston,  who  lives 
within  a  few  feet  of  Brigham 
Young's  residence  of  early  man- 
hood. One  of  the  most  interesting 
things  we  discovered  was  a  docu- 
ment that  was  read  before  the  Cay- 
uga County  Historical  Society 
many  years  ago.  The  document, 
which  is  an  old  newspaper  under 
date  of  March  5,  1904,  is  in  pos- 
session of  the  Weston  family.  Mr. 
Weston  is  the  nephew  of  William 
Hayden,  who  was  the  author  of  the 
paper.  The  article,  according  to  the 
rules  of  evidence,  is  unquestionably 
reliable.  The  author  is  very  careful 
to  avoid  saying  anything  that  he 
does  not  know  to  be  true.  Mr.  Hay- 
den, who  was  a  very  learned  man 
and  a  member  of  the  New  York 
State  Senate  for  a  number  of  years, 
knew  Brigham  Young  intimately. 

In  the  stately  home  of  Mr.  West- 
on one  of  the  further  attractions  is 
a  cannon  ball,  not  the  ordinary  sort 
but  one  that  was  captured  from  the 
British  at  Saratoga  in  1 777  and  car- 
ried by  President  Young's  father 
one  hundred  miles  into  Vermont. 
When  the  Youngs  moved  to  York 
State  the  cannon  ball  went  with 
them.  Mr.  Hayden  tells  of  the  relic 
in  his  paper.  The  following  inci- 
dent also  recorded  in  the  paper  re- 
ferred to  shows  the  resourcefulness 
of  the  pioneer  leader,  in  that  he  put 
the  cannon  ball  to  a  practical  use: 

Brigham,  as  he  was  familiarly  called,  was 

By  Joseph  Williams 
and  John  Farr  Larsen 

Of  the  Eastern  States  Mission 

C'ayuga  County,  New 
York,  claims  Isaac 
Singer  of  the  sewing  ma- 
chine, Henry  Wells  of 
Wells  Fargo,  and  Brigham 
Young,  of  whom  they  tell 
many  stories these  among 



first  employed  at  painting  wooden  pails, 
the  work  being  done  in  a  manner  so  satis- 
factory as  to  call  forth  many  compliments 
from  the  proprietor,  Mr.  Parks.  Brigham 
suggested  that  there  was  still  a  chance  for 
improvement  if  the  paint  could  be  properly 
prepared.  This,  he  declared,  could  be  done 
with  slight  additional  expense  and,  once 
arranged  for,  would  enable  Mr.  Parks  to 
dispense  with  the  services  of  one  man,  while 
the  work  itself  would  be  better  done. 

It  was  agreed  that  Brigham  was  to  make 
the  improvement  in  one  day,  Mr.  Parks  to 
furnish   the   required  material.      That   eve- 

ning Brigham  selected  his  lumber  and  at 
dawn  of  day  he  was  found  busy  at  his 
task.  At  noon  he  had  a  small  water  wheel 
completed  and,  while  the  other  operatives 
were  at  dinner,  he  drew  the  water  from  the 
flume,  adjusted  a  gate  and  had  his  wheel 
running  upon  their  return. 

His  wheel  had  an  upright  shaft  some  five 
or  six  feet  high  with  a  slant  of  35  or  40 
degrees.  On  the  top  was  arranged  a  frame 
to  hold  a  large  old-fashioned  dinner  pot, 
into  which  the  paint  was  put  with  a  cannon 
ball  weighing  25  pounds.  When  the  wheel 
was  set  in  motion,  it  would  revolve  in  one 
direction  while  its  slanting  position  would 
cause  the  ball  to  roll  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion. The  idea  was  that  the  continued  roll- 
ing of  the  ball  would  grind  or  pulverize  the 
paint  to  the  desired  fineness.  This  im- 
provement was  pronounced  by  all  a  com- 
plete success  and  thereafter  Brigham  was 
consulted  in  regard  to  all  proposed  alter- 
ations and  improvements  upon  the  premises. 

NT  ear  the  home  of  Mr.  Weston  in 
Port  Byron  is  a  well  that  Presi- 
dent Young  stoned.  The  well  still 
gives  forth  delicious,  pure  water 
which  is  a  testimony  to  the  skill  and 
good  judgment  of  our  second  leader. 
An  interesting  story  is  told  about 
this  well: 

The  lady  of  the  house  in  which  several 
of  the  factory  help  boarded  rebelled  at  be- 
ing obliged  to  carry  the  water  for  culinary 
purposes  from  a  spring  some  30  or  40  rods 
distance  and  requested  Mr.  Parks  to  have  a 
well  dug  near  the  house. 

Mr.  Parks  proposed  to  have  it  dug 
about  10  rods  north  of  the  house  at  a  point 
where  the  ground  was  lower  and  argued 
that  the  expense  would  be  proportionately 
less.  This  idea  not  being  in  harmony  with 
the  wish  and  convenience  of  the  lady,  a 
somewhat  heated  discussion  arose,  and  not 
being  able  to  harmonize  the  situation,  it 
was  finally  agreed  to  appeal  the  case  to 
Brigham.  After  listening  to  the  arguments 
on  both  sides,  he  decided  that  the  place  for 
the  well  was  near  the  house,  assuring  Mr. 
Parks  that  the  fact  that  the  ground  was 
higher  at  that  point  was  no  reason  why 
water  could  not  be  secured  with  no  greater 
depth  of  digging,  calling  his  attention  to  the 
fact  that  the  spring  from  which  the  water 
was  then  procured  was  much  higher  than 
the  ground  upon  which  the  house  stood. 

Geologists  today  accept  this  as  an 

Mr.  Parks  had  many  excuses  for  not 
digging  the  well,  the  strongest  being  that 
no  man  could  be  found  with  the  necessary 
skill  to  lay  the  stone  in  stoning  it  up.  To 
this  objection  Brigham  proposed  that  if  Mr. 
Parks  would  furnish  help  after  the  close 
of  the  day's  work  in  the  factory  he  would 
himself  undertake  the  stoning  up  the  well 
and  would  guarantee  its  permanence. 

This  generous  proposition  was  readily  ac- 
cepted and  work  on  the  well  speedily  begun. 
At  a  little  less  than  20  feet  a  good  stream  of 
water  was  reached,  which  has  continued  to 
flow  copiously  until  the  present  day.  Some 
10  nights  of  hard  work  for  three  or  four 
hours  each  night  and  the  well  was  com- 
pleted and  was  ready  for  use.  Mr.  Parks 
expressed  himself  as  much  pleased  and  with 
his  customary  generosity  presented  Brig- 
ham with  a  dollar  which  it  was  afterwards 
said  that  Brigham  tossed  into  the  well  as 
a  thank  offering.  This  I  will  not  vouch  for, 
but  I  do  know  that  when  the  well  was 
being  cleaned  some  20  years  afterwards  a 
silver  Spanish  dollar  was  found. 

It  was  while  President  Young  was 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 

working  here  in  Port  Byron  that  he 
met  his  first  wife,  Miriam  Angeline 
Works.  He  took  his  bride  to  a  cot- 
tage that  he  built  without  assistance. 
Brigham  Young  was  about  twenty- 
five  years  of  age  at  the  time.  The 
house  he  built  for  her  is  sturdy  and 
strong  and  it  is  still  in  use  today. 
The  State  of  New  York  has  placed 
a  marker  on  the  roadside  near  by. 
The  house  has  three  floor  levels;  the 
lowest  one  being  on  the  ground — a 
semi-basement  kitchen.  Three  rooms 
are  on  the  middle  floor,  and  two 
rooms  in  the  upper  story.  Stairways 
inside  the  house  connect  all  floors. 
It  is  thought  that  the  basement  was 
used  by  Brigham  Young  as  a  work- 

An  incident  of  a  drowning  boy  is 
one  that  was  never  effaced  from  the 
memory  of  Senator  Hayden.  He 
used  the  following  words  before  the 
Cayuga  County  Historical  Society: 

Little  Willie  Carpenter,  a  lovely  boy  of 
about  three  years,  was  allowed  to  go  and 
meet  his  father,  a  workman  in  the  carding 
machine  building  about  10  rods  south  of  the 
pail  factory.  When  the  little  one  did  not 
return  as  expected  an  alarm  was  given 
and  a  search  begun.  Brigham  at  once  con- 
cluded that  if  the  boy  had  fallen  into  the 
raceway,  the  current  would  have  drawn  him 
into  the  flume  and  out  of  sight.  He  im- 
mediately plunged  in  and,  after  a  few  mo- 
ments of  swimming  and  feeling  about  in 
the  raceway,  the  body  was  found  and 
brought  out. 

The  frantic  mother  caught  the  limp  little 
body  in  her  arms  and  it  was  some  time 
before  Brigham  could  persuade  her  to  al- 
low him  to  take  measures  to  resuscitate 
the  child.  It  was  too  late,  however,  for 
life  was  extinct.  I  have  often  heard  it 
remarked  afterward  that  Brigham  shed  more 
tears  over  the  loss  of  this  child  than  did 
its  own  father. 

Vears  after  President  Young  left 
Port  Byron  and  became  one  of 
the  "Mormons,"  the  citizenry  named 
the  section  in  which  President 
Young  lived,  "Nauvoo."  The  name 
is  common  in  Port  Byron  today. 

Going  down  state  from  Port  By- 
ron we  entered  Auburn,  N.  Y., 
where  Brigham  Young  assisted  in 
building  many  houses.  One  in  par- 
ticular we  noticed  was  the  home  of 
William  F.  Seward  who  was  Secre- 
tary of  State  in  President  Abraham 
Lincoln's  cabinet.  At  the  entrance  of 
this  mansion  are  two  lion  figures  re- 
sembling the  one  at  the  entrance  of 
the  Lion  House  in  Salt  Lake  City. 
No  doubt  this  is  where  President 
Young  obtained  his  idea  to  build  the 
Lion  House. 

Inspiration  is  received  from  this 
section.  When  one  gets  down  to 
the  facts  and  weighs  them  carefully 
there  is  only  one  conclusion  to  be 

N.  Y. 



HOME     OF     W. 
BYRON,  N.  Y. 

H.     WESTON     NEAR     PORT 


AT  MENDON,  N.  Y. 

reached:  Brigham  Young  was  an 
outstanding  young  man  in  Cayuga 
County,  resourceful,  capable,  cour- 

ageous, and  sympathetic.  Evidences 
that  testify  to  these  characteristics 
are  being  uncovered  every  day  even 
though  he  was  a  figure  of  a  century 
ago.  Is  it  not  logical  to  suppose  that 
if  God  needed  a  great  leader  to  carry 
on  His  work  He  would  select  a  man 
having  these  qualifications? 


ChwihcA,  JhsL  is 



Oalmyra  and  its  immediate  vicin- 
*  ity,  revered  in  Mormon  history 
as  the  birthplace  of  a  great  reli- 
gion, is  fast  becoming  a  modern 
mecca  for  tourists  and  members  of 
the  Church  from  all  parts  of  the 

Plans  are  well  under  way  to 
make  the  traditional  conference 
and  pageant  to  be  held  July  22,  23, 
and  24  an  event  that  will  be  an 
inspiration  to  all  who  attend.  All 
who  plan  to  make  a  visit  to  this 
sacred  spot  would  do  well  to  ar- 
range their  schedules  to  be  present 
at  this  event.  Bus  loads  of  people 
from  the  west  will  make  it  one  of 
their  main  stops  on  tours  to  Mor- 
mon shrines. 

Here  can  be  seen  the  Sacred 
Grove  where  the  Prophet  Joseph 
Smith  received  the  first  revelation; 
the  old  homestead  where  he  lived 
as  a  boy;  the  Hill  Cumorah  where, 
at  the  hands  of  the  Angel  Moroni, 
he  received  the  records  from  which 
he  translated  the  sacred  history  of 
the  ancient  inhabitants  of  the  con- 
tinent. There  is  now,  also,  the 
forty  foot  bronze  and  granite  Angel 
Moroni  Monument  which  is  illumi- 
nated by  powerful  floodlights 
every  night  from  dark  to  dawn. 
At  the  base  of  the  Hill  Cumorah 
is  the  Bureau  of  Information  build- 
ing, designed  to  resemble  the  archi- 
tecture of  ancient  America. 

Public  meetings  will  be  held  in 
the  Sacred  Grove  each  day.  On 
each  of  the  three  evenings,  the 
stirring  pageant,  "America's  Wit- 
ness for  Christ,"  will  be  presented 
in  the  open-air  theatre.  This 
pageant  attracted  audiences  of 
over  10,000  people  last  season. 

President  Frank  Evans  of  the 
Eastern  States  Mission  extends  a 
hearty  invitation  to  all  to  join  in 
the  annual  Hill  Cumorah  Pilgrim- 
age this  year. 



By  J.  PAUL  VORKINK  and 

Of  the  Netherlands  Mission 

astic  applause  given  the  missionaries 
rivaled  greatly  that  received  in  Amster- 
dam a  month  previous. 

Every  year  the  A.  M.  V.  J.  Athletic 
Club  of  Amsterdam  sponsors  an  in- 
ternational basketball  tournament  at 
which  the  countries  England,  Belgium, 
France,  Germany,  and  Holland  are 
usually  represented.  As  cage  artists, 
the  missionaries  are  pointing  for  this 
tournament,  but  as  missionaries  they 
are  pointing  towards  making  friend- 

Rotterdam  was  the  scene  of  intense 
baseball  activity  last  summer.  Through 
the  efforts  of  Elder  John  A.  Roghaar 

breaking  down  prejudice  and  replacing 
it  with  friendship. 

Recently,    through    their    affiliations  the  missionaries  made  arrangements  to 

with  the  A.   M.   V.   J.   Club   and   the  play  with  a  group  of  young  men  from 

efforts  of  Elder  Orme  Jergensen  who  the  A.  M.  V.  J.  Athletic  Club  of  Rot- 

,    j      acts  as  playing  manager  of  the  team,  terdam  who  were  just  learning  to  play 

To  ninety-nine  out  of  a  hundred      two  teams  0f  missionaries  were  invited  the   American   national    sport.      Some 

the  mention  of  the  name  Nether-      to  piay  an  exhibition  game  of  American  very    enjoyable    Saturday   afternoons 

lands  probably  brings  visions  of      basketball   at   the   opening   of   a   new  were  spent  teaching  the  Dutch  boys 

stately  windmills,  dikes,  wooden      gymnasium    built   by    the    Koninklijke  the  finer  points  of  the  game,  playing 

shoes,  brightly  colored  costumes,  broad      Luchtvaart     Maatschappij      (National  against   them   and   making    some   true 

acres  of  tulip  fields,  and  all  the  other      Airways    Company)    of    the    Nether-  and   lasting   friendships.      The   Elders 

"Dutchisms"  that  are  known  the  world      \ands.     Saturday,  January  29,  was  set  invariably  won  the  contests,  but  at  the 

over.  Yes,  all  these  things  are  still  to  be      as  the  day  for  this  event,  and  the  Elders  end   of  the   season  the   Rotterdamers 

found  in  the  small  country  where  fifty     wh0  attended  as  well  as  President  and  were  making  a  real  battle  out  of  every 

Mormon  missionaries  are  preaching  the      Sister  Franklin  J.  Murdock  met  in  Am-  game. 

Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,   and  although      sterdam    and    were   transported    by    a  To  further  the  cause  of  friendship  as 

rapid  modernization  is  pushing     Oud      K.L.M.  bus  to  the  airport  at  Schiphol,  a  well  as  to  show  their  good  will  and 

Holland"   or   "Old  Holland     into  the      small    town    about    three    miles    from  sportsmanship  the  missionaries  entered 
background,  the  things  that  were  a  part      Holland's  largest  city  and  where  Hol- 
of  it  will  probably  never  become  ex-      iand's  iargest  airfield  is  located, 
tinct    and    Holland    will     forever    be          Tjpon  entering  the  gymnasium,   the 

immediately     im- 

looked  upon  as  one  of  the  quaintest 
and  most  picturesque  lands  on  earth. 
Occupying  a  space  only  about  one- 
seventh  the  size  of  the  state  of  Utah, 
it  has  yielded  a  fruitful  harvest  of  con- 
verts in  the  seventy-odd  years  that  the 
Gospel  has  been  preached  there.  For 
though  the  land  is  small,  the  people  are 
sturdy,     industrious,     intelligent,     and 

into  competition  with  their  Dutch  op- 
ponents in  Holland's  national  game  of 
soccer.     The  Americans  were  given  a 
couple  of  thorough  drubbings,  although 
pressed  with   the   modernness   of   the      they  did  learn  to  respect  the  prowess 
structure  and  the  exclusiveness  of  the      of  the  Dutch  players  as  well  as  learn 
opening.      Only  persons  with   printed      something   about    the    game.      Several 

missionaries     were 

interesting  film  evenings  were  held  and 
the  growth  of  the  M.  I.  A.  classes  in 
the  Rotterdam  branch  this  winter  has 
been  the  result  of  the  summer's  "extra" 

Missionaries    are    not    losing    them- 

making  contacts  and  winning  friends. 


invitations  were  admitted  and  repre- 
sentatives from  select  Dutch  military, 
civic,  social  and  recreational  circles 
were  present. 

Before    the    game    Elder    Frank    B. 

above  all — religious-minded — which  at-      Jex  addressed  the  crowd  through  the 

titude  gives  every  Mormon  proselyter      amplifier,  both  in  Dutch  and  English,      selves    in    their    enthusiasm    to    play 

an  approach  to  their  hearts.    But  even      announcing  who  the  missionaries  were      Sports  are  being  recognized  for  what 

so,  her  long  and  glorious  struggle  for      and  expressing   their  appreciation   for      they  are — one  of  the  many  means  of 

liberty  and  her  persistency  in  maintain-      the   invitation  they  had  received.     A 

ing  that  liberty  despite  the  ambitions      group  picture  was  taken  of  the  players 

of  the  many  nations  who  have  longed      and  the  referee,  and  several  times  during 

to  rule  over  her,  have  bred  within  her      the    game    press    photographers    took 

people  a  certain  inflexibility  which  ex-      flash-light  shots  of  the  players  in  ac- 

presses  itself  when  anything  foreign  is      tion.     Apparently  the  spectators  were 

introduced.  thrilled  with  the  game,  for  the  enthusi- 

All  of  the  known  methods  of  mis- 
sionary  work    are    employed    in    the 

Netherlands,      including      distributing 

tracts,     illustrated     lectures,     English 

classes  and  choruses.     The   realm  of 

sports   also   offers   an   opportunity   to 

"Make  Friends,"  but  only  during  the 

past  year  has  it  been  used  to  advantage. 

Basketball  in  the  city  of  Amsterdam  is 

sponsored  by  the  A.  M.  V.  J.  Athletic 

Club  and  it  is  through  their  friendliness 

and  cooperation  that  the  missionaries 

have  been  participating  in  that  sport. 

Late  in  December  an  exhibition  game 

was  played  against  the  A.  M.  V.  J.  five 

in  their  gymnasium  in  Amsterdam  be- 
fore 350  high  school  students  and  fac- 
ulty members.     After  their  victory  the 

missionaries  were  given  thunderous  ap- 
plause  and  they   could   not   help   but 

feel  that  they  had  made  a  step  towards 


Why  i  do  not 



If  the  "I"  in  the  above  title  sounds 
too  personal,  you  will  forgive  me, 
an  unknown  college  girl,  when 
you  realize  that  it  is  less  egotistical 
than  to  say  "Why  Girls  Should  Not 
Smoke,"  because  that  would  imply 
that  I  am  an  authority  on  the  matter. 
And  of  course  I  am  not. 

Plenty  of  people  who  have  a  right 
to  write  such  an  article  have  been 
before  me,  and  have  given  you  force- 
ful, technical  reasons  why  tobacco 
is  especially  harmful  to  women.  But 
let  me  approach  the  problem  inform- 
ally, from  the  point  of  view  of  one 
of  the  younger  generation. 

I  assure  you  that  I  am  a  perfectly 
normal  girl  and  I  don't  smoke.  I  am 
twenty-one,  and,  like  any  of  Eve's 
daughters,  I  want  to  be  as  attractive 
as  possible.  The  first  requirement, 
of  course,  is  good  health.  There  is 
nothing  charming  about  yellowed 
teeth,  a  sallow  complexion,  jaded 
nerves,  and  that  famous  pariah  about 
which  even  your  best  friends  won't 
tell  you.  I  want  a  clear  skin,  a  clean 
smile,  and  breath  untainted  by  to- 

In  time  nicotine  yellows  the  skin 
of  the  face  as  it  does  the  fingers, 
causing  tired  lines,  sharp  features, 

a  languid,  anaemic  look,  a  coarsened 
voice,  and  an  appearance  of  pre- 
mature old  age.  Some  one  has  sug- 
gested that  the  old  saying  that  a 
woman  is  as  old  as  she  looks  might 
well  be  changed  to  "A  woman  is  as 
old  as  she  smokes." 

Most  of  us  rejoiced  at  the  change 
from  the  boyish  styles  to  the  present 
graceful  fashions.  Girls  wisely  want 
to  appear  feminine  again.  Cigarette 
smoking  is  masculine  and  unfitting. 
How  grotesque  it  is  when  a  girl  is 
in  chiffons  or  trailing  evening  dress! 
I  spent  part  of  my  life  within  sight 
of  an  illiterate,  unkempt  old  Irish 
woman.  Winter  and  summer  she 
wore  a  small  dirty  shawl  over  her 
head  and  sat  crossly  on  her  door- 
step, a  frown  on  her  leathery  old 
face,  and  a  pipe  in  her  mouth.     But 

Mrs.  H and  her  corncob  pipe 

were  not  so  incongruous  a  sight  as 
an  attractive,  well-dressed  girl  with 
her  mouth  askew  to  accommodate 
the  ubiquitous  cigarette. 

Tobacco,  however,  affects  more 
than  the  outward  appearance:  it  is 
harmful  to  the  general  health  as 
well.  The  average  young  woman  of 
today  has  a  glorious  heritage  of  good 
health.  Cigarettes  are  petty  thieves, 
cleverly  stealing  this  heritage  little 
by  little. 

I  was  interested  to  learn  just  how 
bad  is  the  reputation  of  tobacco  with 
the  medical  profession.  A  bit  of 
study  brings  to  light  the  following 
dismal  facts:  Smoking  injures  the 
heart.  The  tobacco  heart  is  an  ir- 
ritable heart,  frequently  intermittent 
in  action  and  not  to  be  depended 
upon  under  calls  for  severe  physical 
exertion.  Tobacco  causes  high 
blood  pressure;  it  poisons  the  nerves, 
hurts  the  eyes,  lessens  resistance  to 
many  diseases,  notably  tuberculosis. 
It  sometimes  induces  cancer;  it  stunts 
the  growth  of  the  young,  and  it  im- 
pairs efficiency  and  athletic  power. 

Nicotine  is  only  one  of  an  im- 
pressive list  of  poisons  contained  in 
tobacco  smoke.  And  nicotine  is  so 
deadly  that  we  read  of  a  case  in 
which  less  than  one  grain  of  nicotine, 
less  than  two  drops,  caused  a  per- 
son's death.  When  the  younger 
generation  carelessly  refer  to  cigar- 

ettes as  "coffin  nails,"  they  speak 
far  more  truth  than  poetry.  For 
nicotine  is  a  slow  poison  and  a  habit- 
forming  drug. 

Unfortunately,  once  a  woman 
starts  smoking,  she  is  apt  to  indulge 
in  the  habit  even  more  often  than  a 
man.  It  is  a  feminine  characteristic 
to  go  to  extremes — especially  regret- 
table in  this  case  because  cigarettes 
are  undeniably  more  harmful  to 
woman  than  to  man. 

Though  I  am  still  one  of  the 
younger  generation,  I  have  enjoyed 
the  fine  friendship  of  a  number  of 
sweet  old  people.  And  I,  too,  want 
to  grow  old  gracefully.  Querulous- 
ness  and  irritability  come  with  smok- 
ing. Advanced  years  bring  more 
frequent  illnesses,  and  with  most 
sickness  the  patient  is  not  allowed 
to  smoke.  An  inveterate  smoker,  de- 
prived of  the  weed,  is  an  especially 
fretful  and  unpleasant  person  to 
have  around. 

"Decently  I  was  chatting  with  a 
classmate  of  mine, — a  pretty 
girl,  always  dressed  to  the  last  min- 
ute of  fashion's  dictates.  Your  first 
impression  would  suggest  that  a 
serious  thought  never  enters  her  neat 
little  head.  But  I  knew  that  she  does 
not  smoke,  and  I  asked  her  why.  She 
looked  up,  at  once  alert  and  inter- 

"Aside  from  health  reasons,"  she 
said,  "I  think  it  makes  a  girl  appear 
so  cheap  and  common.  I  know  I 
certainly  shouldn't  want  my  mother 
to  smoke.  And  incidentally  if  I  ever 
have  any  daughters  I  wouldn't  want 
to  set  a  bad  example  for  them.  I 
think  most  girls  smoke  because  they 
want  to  do  what  the  crowd  does. 
But  boys  say  that  few  girls  do  it 
well.  This  summer  the  boy  I  dated 
most  boasted,  'My  girl  doesn't 
smoke!'  So  I'm  proud  that  I  don't 
smoke.  It's  being  different  not  to, 
these  days." 

I  quite  agreed  with  her.  A  few 
years  ago  when  a  woman  smoked,  it 
was  with  something  of  a  pioneer, 
adventuresome  spirit,  however  mis- 
directed. Now  it  is  distinctive  not 
to  smoke.  To  smoke  is  to  follow  the 
line  of  least  resistance.  One  of  the 
(Concluded  on  page  436) 


By  Harry  Elmore  Hard 

Man,  with  your  back  to  the  sun, 
Your  face  to  the  soil, 
I  honor  the  sweat  of  your  brow, 

The  fruit  of  your  toil. 
Hold  the  horns  of  the  plow, 

Turn  the  sod — 
Work  is  an  act  of  faith, 

A  prayer  to  God. 
Rein  the  furrow  straight, 

Hope  is  a  star — - 
Plow  to  the  end  of  the  field, 

Lift  the  bar. 
Swing  .  .  .  stretch  .  .  .  strain  .  .  . 

Beware  of  rocks — 
Think  of  the  ripened  corn 

In  golden  shocks. 
Plant  your  kernels  of  faith — ■ 

Sloth  is  a  weed — 
Rain  shall  bless  your  work, 

Swell  the  seed. 

By  Belle  Watson  Anderson 

Spring  softly   treads   the  dreary   sombre 
And  paints  the  glow  of  beauty  in  the  trees, 
Reveals  the  charm  of  rhythm  in  the  breeze, 
And  calls  to  drowsy  roots  with  tapping  rain. 

At  seeding  time,  before  the  vernal  sun 
Awakened  crescent  buds  on  bramble  tree, 
The  planter  had  made  the  land  clear  and 

Of  hardy  resisting  brush.     He  had  come 

Across  the  roadless  hills  to  level  field 
To  plow  and  sow  the  priceless  golden  grain; 
No  fences  to  protect  the  fallowed  plain 
From  cattle  grazing  on  all  tender  yield. 

He  built  a  hut  with  oak-brush,  and  with  pine 
Made  a  home  like  the  ground  squirrel's  nest, 
Dug  ditches  and  canals  in  water  quest 
And  stayed  day  and  night  at  the  frontier 

Marvelous  feats  are  wrought  by  faith  and 

God  fashioned  the  heart  of  the  sturdy  plow- 

And  made  him  equal  to  each  need  and  plan. 

Six  driving  months  he  did  not  quit  or  shirk. 

At  last  he  saw  the  billowing  grain, 
The  radiant  promise  of  winter's  bread; 
In  humbleness  the  farmer  bared  his  head 
For  the  blessed  miracle  of  the  plain. 

By  C.  N.  Lund 

Worthy  son  of  Pioneers, 
Spanning  all  the  marching  years, 
Bridging  all  the  builded  dream 
Of  prophet  men  whose  spirits  seem 
To  walk  and  talk  with  you 
Amid  the  wonders  that  we  view. 

Through  want  and  wilderness, 
Through  days  of  storm  and  strife, 
To  peace  and  wealth  and  fame 
You've  brought  your  honored   name. 
You've  nobly  walked  the  height 
With  manliness  and  might, 
And  conquered  with  the  plan 
That  God  evolved  for  man. 


Photograph  by  Harrison  R.  Merrill. 

By  Carlton  Culmsee 

WHO     carved     the    gold     and     crimson 
From  the  strong  hills? 
A  host  of  mighty-muscled  Titans 

With  stubborn  wills? 
Who  reared  the  altars,  glowing,  holy? 

A  prophet  with  his  rod? 
No,  only  the  Virgin  toiling  slowly 
For  the  glory  of  God. 


By  Maryhale  Woolsey 

Lace  curtains?- — oh,  they're  quite  passe," 
The  decorator  made  decree; 
"Let's  use,  instead,  fine  draperies 

That  leave  the  windows  clear  and  free." 

I  love  this  modern  shiningness; 

But  still,  it  grieved  me  when  today 

Some  little  breezes  came  to  call — 

And  I'd  no  place  for  them  to  play! 
■  ■»  .    

By  Merling  Dennis  Clyde 

The  June-grass  waves  in  silvered  sheets; 
A  hawk  sails  lazily; 
The  road  unwinds  its  ribboned  way 
To  lead  on  endlessly. 

Dust  clouds  circle  across  the  plains; 

A  scorching  wind  moans  by; 
Mirages  fling  up  blue-green  lakes 

To  taunt  the  seeking  eye. 

The  desert  waste  must  first  be  crossed 

To  find  the  cooling  streams; 
The  barren  spots  must  be  traversed 

To  reach  the  land  of  dreams. 

(A  Japanese  Cinquain) 

By  Elizabeth  Whitmer  Locke 

Orange  blossoms 
Symbolize  fruitfulness 
Set  as  a  crown  on  womanly 

By  Sylvester  Pierce 

(One  of  Utah's  pioneer  dry  farmers  who 

is  still  actively  operating  a  2,000  acre  ranch 

in  central   Utah.) 

Way  out  in  the  wilderness, 
I  found  a  valley  wide  and  fair 
That  needed  only  water 
To  make  a  garden  there; 

My  friends  all  warned  me  not  to  go. 

They  said  it  was  a  fake, 
And  only  one  in  that  wild  land 

Would  dare  those  chances  take. 

There  were  no  streams  or  rivers, 

So  this  is  what  I  said, 
"I'll  store  the  moisture  in  the  soil 

And  that  will  do  instead." 

I  made  the  soil  so  nice  and  fine, 

Prepared  a  real  seed  bed, 
And  when  the  summer's  heat  came  on 

My  plants  went  right  ahead, 

For  they  were  spaced  in  rows  and  hills 
To  give  them  room  to  dwell — 

Although  unusual  drought  prevailed, 
These  dry  land  crops  did  well. 

When  I  see  these  fertile  fields 

Where  once  was  desert  land, 
The  system  used  to  make  this  change, 

I  surely  think  it  grand. 

By  Sylvia  Probst 

THERE  are  so  many  lovely  things 
I've  enjoyed  today: 
Morning  sunshine  riding 
In  soft  clouds  of  gray; 
Autumn's  echo  in  the  hills; 
Wind  that  brushed  my  face; 
Spiders  in  the  naked  trees, 
Spinning  dainty  lace; 
One  last  fragrant  little  flower 
In  a  sheltered  nook. 
I  can  find  such  lovely  things 
When  I  look! 

By  Lydia  Hall 

IN  the  West  where  the  purple  sage 
Lifts  lovely,   scented   plumes 
Is  where  the  shining,  scarlet-tipped 
Indian  paintbrush  blooms. 

And  every  year  when  Springtime  comes 

To  this  fair  desert  land, 
Old  mother  nature  paints  with  them 

Bright  pictures  in  the  sand. 

By  Nephi  Jensen 

SONG  of  bird,  blush  of  rose, 
And  glint  of  soothing  star 
Give  me  Beauty's  repose; 
I  own  all  near  and  far. 

Serene  Truth's  regal  reign 
My  heart  with  faith  empowers; 

Peace  holds  my  soul's  domain; 
I  own  Life's  rarest  dowers. 



Dresident  J.  Reuben  Clark,  Jr.,  left 
Salt  Lake  City  Friday,  June  3, 
en  route  to  Europe  to  attend  two  im- 
portant international  gatherings  as 
American  representative.  The  first, 
June  20  at  Geneva,  are  the  meetings 
of  the  League  of  Nations  Committee  on 
International  Loan  Contracts.  The 
second,  at  Paris,  June  27  and  28,  is  the 
Conference  of  European  Bondholders, 
at  which  he  represents  the  Foreign 
Bondholders  Protective  Association 
Inc.,  of  which  he  is  now  chairman  of 
the  executive  committee.  Following 
this  conference,  President  Clark  will 
visit  London  and  sail  from  Southhamp- 
ton for  the  United  States  on  July  7. 

President  Clark  was  appointed  to 
the  Bondholders  Council  as  a  director 
in  1934  and  served  as  acting  president 
for  a  few  months  before  becoming  pres- 
ident of  the  council.  Recently  he  re- 
signed active  direction  of  the  Council 
because  he  was  unable  to  devote  the 
increasing  time  required  for  these 
duties.  As  a  tribute  to  his  service,  and 
desiring  to  keep  him  in  close  associa- 
tion with  the  Council,  the  directors 
created  the  position  of  Chairman  of 
the  Executive  Committee  and  elected 
him  to  that  post. 


John  Alden  Bowers  of  Ogden,  Utah, 
has  been  appointed  president  of  the 
Brazilian  Mission  to  succeed  Rulon  S. 



ARRIVED   MAY  23,  193S— DEPARTED  JUNE  9,   1938 

Left  to  right,  First  Row:  Merrill  B.  Robinson,  Harold  W.  Wood,  Clotele  Olson,  Mrs.  Thelma  Waddoups, 
Marcella  Andersen,  Louise  Call,  Klea  Pugsley,  Evelyn  Branch,  Margaret  Price,  Crosby  A.  Glenn,  J.  Wyley  Sessions 

Second  Row:  Edgar  B.  Mitchell,  La  Prile  B.  Mitchell,  May  Summers,  Sadie  Ogden,  Elsie  Swan,  Grace  McCook, 
Dorothy  Crochett,   Harriet  D.  Eyre,  Jay  Wynn  Lees. 

Third  Row:  Dee  Sanders,  Elda  Hepworth,  Erma  Hansen,  Emma  V.  Payne,  Alice  Snow,  Lizetta  Seeley, 
Va  Netta  Larsen,  Lydia  Christensen,  Cal.  H.  Cornia. 

Fourth  Row:  Orville  W.  Allen,  Floyd  E.  Hays,  Dennis  L.  Prows,  Lillis  Ence,  Ruth  Adamson,  Elaine  Call, 
Zelda  Wheeler,  H.  Christian  Andierson,   Reed  Oldroyd,  Earl  Williams. 

Fifth  Row:  Rulon  Henderickson,  R.  Larkin  Glade,  Clyde  W.  Gardiner,  Genevieve  Morgan,  Ruth  Fors, 
Richard  H.  Ray,   Ida  Perry,  Montie  Snow,  Spencer  Clawson. 

Sixth  Row:  A.  Sherman  Gowen,  Harold  Sabin,  Eldon  J.  West,  Augusta  Brough,  Ruby  Durrant,  JoJw  E. 
Gillespie,   Merlin  Huntsman,   Royal  Victor  Wolters. 

Seventh  Row:  William  Wayne  Capner,  Leon  Zollinger,  Vincent  Christensen,  Carlton  Chester  Cope,  Claude 
Don  Williamson,  Mac  Hanchett,  Milton  Sanders,  William  H.  Bousfield,  Heber  Christensen,  Eldon  D.  Hymas. 

Eighth  Row:  Robert  W.  Flake,  Wayne  Dudley,  Owen  L.  Cox,  Vernon  C.  Sorenson,  Harold  Lee  Allen, 
John  Cummings,  Harold   Glover,   Herbert   Lester  Tracy. 

Howells,  who  has  served  as  president 
for  the  past  three  years.  Elder  Bowers 
has  long  been  active  in  the  Church,  as 
a  Seventy  in  both  Carbon  and  Ogden 
Stakes,  and  as  a  member  of  the  Carbon 
Stake  M.  I.  A.  stake  board.  He  filled 
a  mission  to  Germany  from  1926-1929. 


TPhe  golden  anniversary  of  the  dedi- 

cation  of  the  Manti  Temple  was 

celebrated  from   June   14  to  June   19, 

1938,  with  many  of  the  General  Au- 

thorities of  the  Church  in  attendance. 
President  Grant  explained  in  his  re- 
marks that  he  is  the  last  of  the  General 
Authorities  who  participated  in  the 
dedicatory  services  fifty  years  ago.  He 
bore  his  testimony  to  the  truthfulness 
of  the  Church  and  urged  all  Latter-day 
Saints  to  catch  the  true  spirit  of  the 
Gospel  which  is  industry  and  labor. 
Others  who  addressed  the  audience  of 
5,000  were  Robert  D.  Young,  presi- 
dent of  the  Manti  Temple;  Elder 
George  F.  Richards,  acting  patriarch 
of  the  Church  and  Church  supervisor 
of  temples;  President  Joseph  Quinney, 
Jr.,  of  the  Logan  Temple;  Louis  R.  An- 
derson, former  stake  president  and 
chairman  of  the  General  Jubilee  Com- 
mittee; and  George  F.  Richards,  Jr., 
of  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  presidency. 

Each  evening  a  pageant,  "The  Hearts 
of  the  Children,"  was  presented  with  a 
cast  of  200  under  the  direction  of  the 
author  M.  W.  Smith,  who  wished  to 
commemorate  the  golden  jubilee  of  the 
completion  and  dedication  of  the  Manti 
Temple,  and  also  to  present  the  views 
and  doctrines  of  the  Church  concerning 
Temple  ordinances. 


A  udiences  which  totaled  6,000  listen- 
ers cheered  the  Mormon  Pioneer 
representation  which  climaxed  the  re- 
cent Fifth  National  Folk  Festival,  held 

in  Constitution  Hall,  Washington, 
D.  C.  Following  a  handcart  up  the 
main  aisle,  over  a  hundred  descendants 
of  the  original  pioneers,  in  costume, 
sang  "Come,  Come,  Ye  Saints"  as  the 
concluding  feature.  This  is  the  first 
occasion  of  Mormon  participation  at 
this  festival.  The  Virginia  Reel,  a 
pioneer  dance,  was  performed  by  three 
sets  on  the  stage.  Headlined  attention 
was  given  to  this  participation  by  news- 
papers in  the  nation's  capital. 

In  marked  contrast  was  the  reception 
given  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  when 
in  1839  he  came  to  Washington  with 
Judge  Elias  Higbee  seeking  redress  and 
government  intervention  in  behalf  of  the 
Missouri  refugees  of  the  Church.  "Your 
cause  is  just,  but  I  can  do  nothing  for 
you"  was  the  final  verdict  of  President 
Van  Buren. 

"Nevertheless,"  said  Joseph  Smith, 
in  heartbroken  departure,  "some  day 
the  Mormon  people  will  be  held  in 
renown  in  the  nation's  capital." 

Washington  members  of  the  Daugh- 
ters of  the  Utah  Pioneers,  Zina  Willey, 
president,  and  the  Utah  State  Society, 
headed  by  Frank  E.  Moss,  took  part  in 
the  folk  festival.  W.  H.  Willey  re- 
hearsed the  dancers  and  "called"  the 
steps,  while  D.  Sterling  Wheelright, 
director  of  music  at  the  L.  D.  S.  Wash- 
ington Chapel,  coached  the  singing  and 
marching.  Children  as  well  as  their 
parents  took  part  in  the  costumed  pro- 

{Continued  on  page  4281 


JHsl  Jjiaimnq^  0$.  QJjoidk. 

Tn  one  of  the  meetings  of  the  recent,  successful 
M.  I.  A. — Primary  Conference,  President  Heber 
J.  Grant  urged  upon  parents  to  train  their  children 
in  the  principles  and  practices  of  the  Gospel  as  of- 
fered by  the  Church.  It  was  the  most  comprehen- 
sive and  important  message  of  the  Conference. 

The  training  of  children  determines  the  behavior 
of  men  and  women.  That  is  taught  by  human  ex- 
perience. The  proverb-maker  has  declared:  "Train 
up  a  child  in  the  way  he  should  go:  and  when  he  is 
old,  he  will  not  depart  from  it."  And  more  simply: 
"As  the  boy  is,  so  the  man  is."  The  future  of  the 
race  rests  upon  the  training  of  youth. 

Character,  the  most  inclusive  and  important  at- 
tribute of  man,  is  woven  of  religious  beliefs  and 
practices,  which,  in  our  land,  may  not  be  taught  in 
the  public  schools,  now  attended  by  nearly  all  of 
our  children.  The  Church,  through  Sunday  and 
weekly  auxiliary  meetings,  through  high  school 
seminaries  and  college  institutes,  does  something  to 
overcome  this  condition.  Nevertheless,  it  must  be 
admitted  that  the  home,  with  its  daily  contact  with 
children,  is  the  most  powerful  agency  for  the 
awakening  and  training  of  the  spiritual  nature  of 
the  family.  As  parents  teach,  the  children  are  likely 
to  become. 

It  is  a  false  conception  of  duty,  as  explained  by 
President  Grant,  that  impells  some  parents  to  say 
that  they  must  not  prejudice  their  children  in  favor 
of  any  religion,  but  allow  them,  unhindered  by 
early  training,  to  make  their  choice  of  church  at- 
tendance and  membership  when  they  come  to  ma- 
turity. Usually,  this  is  proposed  by  parents  who, 
themselves,  have  become  inactive  in  the  Church. 
Every  child,  in  our  age,  will  be  taught,  if  not  by 
parents,  by  someone  or  something  else,  perhaps  by 
the  rabble  on  the  streets,  and  often  in  opposition 
to  religion.  Moreover,  if  parents  have  well-ma- 
tured convictions  as  to  any  belief,  it  is  their  duty 
to  pass  them  on  to  their  children.  To  do  otherwise 
would  be  cowardly,  and  a  retreat  from  parental 
responsibility.  Truth  must  be  carried  to  others, 
especially  to  those  of  our  own  flesh  and  blood,  else 
progress  ceases.  Besides,  when  maturity  is  reach- 
ed, the  teachings  of  parents  may  and  will  be 
weighed  by  the  ripened  judgment.  There  need  be 
no  fear  on  that  score. 

Parents  who  love  their  children  should  teach 
them,  freely  and  fearlessly,  faith  in  God  and  Jesus 
the  Christ,  the  restoration  of  the  Gospel  through 
the  instrumentality  of  Joseph  Smith,  the  doctrines 
of  the  Church,  and  the  necessity  of  feeding  the 
spiritual  part  of  man  by  participation  in  Church 
work.  Children  should  be  urged  to  take  part  in  the 
several  organizations  of  the  Church.  Children, 
so  taught  and  trained,  grow  towards  clean,  whole- 
some, useful  lives,  and  cause  the  hearts  of  genuine 
parents  to  beat  with  warm  joy.  In  this  chaotic 
age,  to  direct  youth  into  truthful,  spiritual  living 
is  the  highest  service  that  parents  can  render  a 
child.  To  accomplish  this  task,  association  with 
the  Church  is  indispensable. 

The  awakening  and  training  of  parents  for  their 
duties  are  among  the  foremost  needs  of  the  day. 

— /.  A.  W. 

"\T7ith  more  than  two-score  years  of  enriching  ex- 
perience and  tradition  behind  it,  the  Forty- 
third  Annual  Conference  of  the  Young  Men's  and 
Young  Women's  Mutual  Improvement  Associa- 
tions reached  new  "highs"  in  many  respects,  and 
added  its  own  distinctive  contributions  to  the  his- 
tory of  the  whole. 

The  three  days  from  Friday,  June  10,  to  Sunday, 
June  12,  inclusive,  followed  by  a  day  devoted  to 
summer  Recreation  and  the  Cavalcade  of  Scouting, 
offered  such  quantity  and  variety  of  instruction  and 
inspiration  as  to  make  one  earnestly  wish  not  that 
the  feast  might  be  more  bounteous,  but  that  the 
powers  of  human  consumption  might  be  equal  to  it. 

The  Conference  included  more  than  a  hundred 
general  and  departmental  sessions  and  major 
events,  with  several  times  that  many  speakers, 
topics,  and  individual  program  numbers.  More 
than  six  thousand  people  actively  participated  in 
the  various  functions,  and  registered  and  non- 
registered  observers  totalled  in  excess  of  twelve 

We  yield  to  the  temptation  to  select  for  special 
mention  a  few  of  the  events,  although  the  high 
merit  of  the  entire  procedure  would  perhaps  make 
it  wiser  not  to  isolate  any  specific  items;  but  the 
mass  demonstrations,  including  the  Dance  Festival 
on  Friday,  the  Music  Festival  on  Saturday,  the 
Convocation  of  Scouting  on  Sunday,  and  the 
Cavalcade  of  Scouting  on  Monday,  were  such  high- 
lights as  to  demand  citation. 

More  significant,  however,  than  any  technique 
or  program  event  was  the  underlying,  over-riding, 
and  all-permeating  theme  of  the  Conference: 
"Building  Latter-day  Saints — through  cultural  ac- 
tivities, through  better  teaching,  through  religious 

For  all  that  occurred  commendation  is  due 
Superintendent  George  Q.  Morris,  President  Lucy 
G.  Cannon,  and  all  their  associates  and  board 
members  and  field  workers  throughout  the  Church. 
The  same  commendation  must  be  extended  also  to 
President  May  Anderson  of  the  Primary  Asso- 
ciation, and  all  her  workers,  for  the  companion 
conference  that  was  held  simultaneously  by  the 
leaders  of  the  Primary  children. 

Such  experiences  and  traditions  of  cumulative 
enrichment  to  the  Church  and  its  people  deserve 
eulogy  and  continuance. — R.  L.  E. 

and.  Jobacco^ 

'T'he  reading  of  the  statement  reprinted  below  was 
the  signal  for  a  rising  vote  of  more  than  four 
thousand  people  in  support  of  the  Churchwide 
campaign  against  the  sale,  use  and  advertising  of 
tobacco  and  alcoholic  beverages.  The  occasion 
was  the  opening  meeting  of  the  M.  I.  A.  Confer- 
ence, in  the  Tabernacle,  Salt  Lake  City,  Friday, 
June  10,  1938,  with  President  Grant  and  many  of 


the  general  officers  of  the  Church  in  attendance: 

Thankful  to  the  Lord  for  His  kindness  in  revealing  the 
Word  of  Wisdom  to  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  for  the  benefit 
of  this  people, 

Grateful  to  the  generation  that  is  past  and  to  older  members 
of  the  Church  for  the  splendid  tradition  of  sobriety  they  have 
created,  of  which  the  world  is  now  taking  note, 

Appreciative  of  the  tireless  efforts  of  President  Grant  and 
his  associates,  the  General  Authorities,  in  teaching  us  to  obey 
this  word  of  the  Lord  and  of  their  present  call  on  the  Priest- 
hood and  auxiliaries  to  bring  about  among  us  the  non-use  of 
alcohol  and  tobacco, 

We,  the  officers  and  members  of  the  Mutual  Improvement 
Associations  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints,  in  annual  conference  assembled,  consider  it  a  privilege 
and  a  duty  to  declare  our  feelings  and  our  intentions  in  this 
serious  matter. 

We  believe  that  the  alluring  advertisements  of  tobacco, 
in  many  cases  amounting  to  moral  if  not  legal  misrepresen- 
tation, by  which  the  manufacturers  of  this  damaging  narcotic 
have  so  widely  extended  its  sale,  is  a  conspiracy  against 
our  most  precious  possession,  youth. 

We  believe  that  the  alarming  increase  since  the  repeal  of 
prohibition  in  the  consumption  of  alcoholic  beverages,  with 
their  ancient  evils  of  disease,  poverty,  crime  and  insanity  and 
their  present  frightful  effect  on  daily  traffic,  is  also  due  in 
very  large  measure  to  the  same  potent  influence,  advertising. 

We  believe  it  is  not  fair  for  the  sake  of  gain,  to  play  upon 
the  susceptibilities  of  youth  by  constantly  repeated  entice- 
ments, nor  to  make  boys  and  girls  feel  that  they  will  live 
happier  and  fuller  lives  if  they  use  these  hurtful  things. 

Guided  by  the  above  statements  and  consistent  with  the 
tradition  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations,  we  declare 
that  in  earnest  support  of  the  program  of  the  Church  we 
pledge  ourselves: 

That  we  will  gladly  teach  the  Word  of  Wisdom  as  a  di- 
vinely revealed  law  of  health: 

That  we  will  cheerfully  act  on  ward  or  stake  committees 
as  we  may  be  called,  or  work  under  their  direction  in  carrying 
information  to  homes  and  in  making  friendly  contact  with 

And  that  we  will  strive  to  diminish  the  use  of  alcoholic 
beverages  and  tobacco  by  doing  all  that  lies  in  our  power  to 
curb  the  false  and  persuasive  advertising  of  these  poisonous 
and  habit-forming  drugs,  the  baleful  and  alluring  publicity 
that  is  now  deluging  the  country. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  rising  vote  of  the 
M.  I.  A.  may  be  only  a  forerunner  and  symbol  of 
a  rising  vote  of  nationwide  effective  indignation 
against  these  evils  which  rob  us  of  health,  wealth, 
virtue,  and  manhood,  the  promoters  of  which  flaunt 
lying  deception  in  our  faces  with  apparent  im- 
punity, trading  for  profit  the  integrity  of  our  youth. 

— R.  L.  E. 

(L  CrfjomcuilL  Sph&hsL 

rpODAY  there  is  much  of  both  beauty  and  ugliness 
in  the  world;  much  of  joy  and  much  of  sorrow; 
much  of  love  and  of  hate.  When  talking  of  ugli- 
ness, sorrow,  and  hate,  many  women  have  been 
content  to  say  glibly:  "Well,  it's  a  man's  world; 
what  can  you  expect?"  The  sooner  women  face 
the  facts  and  accept  the  responsibility  which  is 
theirs  for  some  of  the  bad  conditions  which  exist 
today,  especially  when  they  fully  expect  to  receive 
praise  for  the  good,  they  will  succeed  better  in  the 
correction  of  the  bad. 

"The  hand  that  rocks  the  cradle  is  the  hand 
that  rules  the  world,"  is  more  than  an  adage  that 
has  fallen  into  disuse.  Mothers  do  have  the  privi- 
lege of  shaping  men  in  the  way  they  should  go. 
Those  things  in  the  world  which  are  harmful  can 
be  traced  somewhat  to  the  negligence  of  mothers 
who  did  not  fully  realize  their  opportunities  when 
the  youngsters  were  under  their  care. 

Mothers  in  the  home  can  teach  the  value  of 
loving  consideration  in  settling  vexatious  little  prob- 
lems which  arise  even  in  the  best  of  homes.  Thus 
they  can  pave  the  way  for  a  peaceful  consideration 
of  neighborhood  problems,  community,  and  inter- 
national questions  when  these  same  young  people 

One  of  the  first  things  which  should  be  empha- 
sized is  respect  for  authority.  This  does  not  imply 
blind  obedience,  but  rather  thoughtful  deference 
to  those  whose  experience  has  placed  them  in  po- 
sitions of  trust.  Chief  among  Latter-day  Saint 
homes  should  come  respect  for  the  Priesthood, 
first  in  the  home,  thus  laying  the  foundation  for 
respect  in  the  ward,  stake,  and  the  Church 
throughout  life. 

Respect  for  the  Priesthood  would  seal  mothers' 
lips  against  any  criticism  of  leaders  in  the  Church. 
Mothers  would  consider  carefully  and  would  come 
to  understand  that  they  could  not  possibly  have 
knowledge  of  the  conditions  which  prompted  cer- 
tain speeches  and  actions  from  the  presiding  offi- 
cers. Mothers  would  be  quick  to  reprimand  the 
children  who  might  pick  up  gossip  and  retail 
it.  Children  learn  by  example  rather  than  by 
preachment.  Mothers  in  the  home  by  their  negli- 
gence and  carelessness  often  undo  all  that  they 
would  teach  when  they  do  not  themselves  follow 
what  they  teach. 

Since  mothers'  responsibility  is  greater,  their 
joy  of  well-done  service  is  also  greater.  The  wom- 
an's sphere  is  therefore  perhaps  the  greatest  of  all 
activities,  for  if  the  mothers  of  men  set  the  stand- 
ards while  the  youth  are  still  malleable,  the  world 
will  attain  to  those  heights  which  have  been  fore- 
told by  all  the  prophets  of  ancient  and  modern 
times.  Let  women  no  longer  shrug  aside  their 
responsibility  by  repeating  catch  phrases;  rather 
let  them  accept  the  fact  that  as  mothers  of  men 
they  can  and  should  mold  the  world. 

Fired  with  purpose,  trained  in  wisdom,  filled 
with  love,  mothers  can  do  more  than  all  other 
leaders  in  implanting  in  the  hearts  of  their  chil- 
dren the  ideals  and  the  hopes  and  dreams  of  future 
achievement.  Like  many  other  great  of  the  earth, 
they  will  pass  unknown  into  their  graves — their 
lives  like  shadowy  lines  moving  dimly  across  the 
horizon  of  time.  Unhonored,  they  will  be  forgot- 
ten within  a  few  short  years;  yet  the  effect  of  their 
lives  will  be  greater  than  the  greatest,  for  they  will 
have  leavened  a  whole  loaf.  Unremembered,  the 
ever-widening  circle  of  their  influence  will  result  in 
untold  good.  And  they  always  need  to  keep  in  their 
hearts  the  prayer  of  the  ancient  psalmist:  "Create 
in  me  a  clean  heart,  O  God;  and  renew  a  right 
spirit  within  me."  With  this  prayer  constantly 
beating  in  the  hearts  and  uppermost  in  the  minds, 
mothers  can  easily  create  the  right  spirit  in  the 
hearts  of  the  children  who  have  been  intrusted  to 
them  by  a  gracious  Creator.  They  will  have  made 
part  of  their  equipment  the  true  humility  which 
will  permit  the  Lord  to  work  with  them  and  lend 
them  His  inspiration  when  they  are  most  particu- 
larly in  need  of  it.  Their  reward  will  come  when 
they  see  the  results  of  their  training  bearing  good 
fruits  in  the  fellowship  which  will  come  to  prevail 
throughout  the  world. — M.  C.  /. 



The  Utah  State  Agricultural 
College,  A  History  of  Fifty  Years 

( Joel  Edward  Ricks,  Deseret  News 
Press.     184  pages.) 

TThis  well-prepared,  informative  vol- 
ume  has  been  published  as  part  of 
the  semi-centennial  celebration  of  the 
Utah  State  Agricultural  College. 

It  is  really  the  story  of  how  the  in- 
stitution amidst  the  changing  years  has 
steadfastly  clung  to  the  ideal  of  the 
founders  of  the  College;  namely,  that 
the  intellectual  gains  of  the  world  must 
be  used  to  dignify  the  common  pursuits 
of  man,  that  is,  the  pursuits  of  the  com- 
mon man.  In  this  endeavor,  farming 
and  the  home,  the  safest  foundation 
blocks  of  our  civilization,  have  been 
the  centers  around  which  the  college 
has  built  its  manifold  activities.  The 
Utah  State  Agricultural  College  dur- 
ing a  half-century  of  life  has  been  true 
to  its  trust. 

The  book  is  a  fascinating  glimpse  of 
a  most  important  chapter  of  Utah  his- 
tory— a  vital  part  of  the  intellectual 
story  of  the  State. 

There  are  twelve  chapters  in  the 
book :  Background,  The  Federal  Land 
Grant  Act,  Utah  Establishes  an  Agri- 
cultural College  and  Experiment  Sta- 
tion, President  Jeremiah  W.  Sanborn — 
An  Appreciation  by  Professor  John  T. 
Caine,  The  Early  Years,  Progress  and 
Conflict,  Reconciliation  and  Growth, 
War  and  Peace,  Expansion,  Under  the 
Block  A.,  Student  Body  Activities,  and 
Bibliography.  In  an  Appendix  are 
listed  all  trustees,  faculty  members,  and 
student  body  officers  of  the  college  dur- 
ing the  history  of  the  school. 

Dr.  Ricks,  Professor  of  History  and 
Chairman  of  the  semi-centennial  cele- 
bration, has  produced  a  painstakingly 
accurate  volume,  in  which  with  deft 
judgment  he  avoids  issues  that  are  dead 
and  clings  to  the  spirit  and  progressive 
achievements  of  the  college.  The 
epochs  of  college  history  are  made  to 
parallel  the  administrations  of  the  sev- 
eral college  presidents,  and  personal- 
ities appear  and  move  on  every  page — 
a  device  which  holds  and  increases  in- 
terest. In  the  space  at  his  command, 
the  author  has  done  an  excellent  piece 
of  work. 

The  author  and  the  college  are  to  be 
congratulated  upon  the  production  of 
this  attractive  volume,  which  should  be 
in  the  library  of  every  lover  of  Utah 
history. — /.  A.  W. 

The  Modern  Family  and 
the  Church 

( Regina  Westcott  Wieman,  Harper 
&  Brothers,  1937.    407  pages.) 

'The  home  with  its  manifold  relation- 
ships  has  always  been  a  concern 
of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter- 
day  Saints.     Therefore,  this  thought- 



THE  much-prized  Houghton,  Mifflin 
fellowship  award  of  $1,000, 
given  annually  to  aid  new  writers, 
was  won  this  year  by  Miss  Maurine 
Whipple  of  St.  George,  Utah,  for 
her  novel,  The  Giant  Joshua,  which 
when  completed  will  cover  three  gen- 
erations of  Mormon  life  in  the  Dixie 
Mission,  a  heroic  venture  symbolic 
of  the  entire  Mormon  experience. 

ful,  scholarly  book,  written  out  of  long 
experience  with  the  problems  involved, 
will  be  of  Church-wide  interest,  and 
especially  so  because  the  discussions 
rise  above  sectarian  differences  and  ap- 
proach the  problems  in  a  generous  and 
understanding  manner.  Full  attention 
is  given  to  Latter-day  Saint  ideals  and 
practices  for  effective  family  devel- 
opment. The  title  does  not  really 
do  justice  to  the  work,  for  somewhere 
or  other  on  its  pages  practically 
every  problem  of  courtship,  mar- 
riage, and  parenthood  is  discussed. 
Nevertheless,  Dr.  Wieman  is  true  to 
her  thesis  in  pointing  out  as  her  central 
thought  the  responsibility  of  the  Church 
in  furthering  all  family  interests. 

All  informed  people  will  agree  with 
Dr.  Wieman's  constant  plea  for  edu- 
cation for  family  life.  She  says,  (p.  34) 
"Many  parents  will  spend  from  fifty  to 
five  thousand  dollars  on  the  wedding 
fete,  but  not  one  penny  on  appropriate 
education  for  marriage."  Only  by  edu- 
cation, through  Church  and  State,  shall 
we  be  able  to  succor  married  and  fam- 
ily life  from  its  present  distress. 

The  four  parts  of  the  book,  each 
crowded  with  valuable  facts  and  con- 
clusions, are:  The  Family  in  the  Life 
of  Today;  The  Church  and  Its  Relation 
to  the  Family;  The  Church  at  Work 
with  the  Family;  and  Facing  into  the 

This  book,  up-to-date,  fearless  yet 
wise  in  its  treatment,  is  one  of  the  few 
that  may  be  heartily  recommended  to 
all  who  are  interested  in  the  most  im- 
portant problems  of  family  life. 

— /.  A.  W. 

Stories  Behind  the  World's 

Great  Music 

( Sigmund  Spaeth,  McGraw-Hill, 

New  York.    371  pages.    $2.50.) 

Tn  these  days  when  we  should  have 

the  slogan  read,  "Music  for  every- 
one and  everyone  for  music,"  such  a 
book  as  Sigmund  Spaeth's  Stories  be- 
hind the  World's  Greatest  Music  is  a 
wholesome  addition  to  any  layman's 
library  or  list  of  "Books  I  Have  Read." 

The  exhilarating  semi-humorous 
style  of  the  author  together  with  the 
many  authentic  bits  of  history  and  ap- 
praisals  of  men   and   their   music   are 

written  into  the  book  in  wholly  under- 
standable language.  You  can  begin 
reading  this  book  on  any  page  and 
though  you  continue  for  only  a  line  or 
two,  you  will  have  read  something  in- 
teresting. The  subject  matter  is  worth- 
while throughout  because  it  deals  with 
the  world's  greatest  music  and  the  men 
who  created  it. — /.  Spencer  Cornwall, 
Director  of  the  Tabernacle  Choir  and 
Chairman  of  Literature  in  the  General 
Music  Committee  and  Chairman  of  the 
Music  Committee  of  the  General  Board 
of  the  Y,  M.  M.  I.  A. 

Problems  and  Values  of  Today 
A  Series  of  Student's  Guidebooks 
For  the  Study  of  Contemporary  Life 
(Eugene  Hilton,  Ed.  D.,  Little, 
Brown  &  Company.    Two  Volumes. ) 

T^hese  volumes  won  the  Atlantic 
Textbook  Prize.  That  is  not  sur- 
prising, for  they  are  the  foremost  con- 
tribution in  recent  days  to  the  education 
of  young  people  in  the  problems  of 
our  "contemporary  life."  The  correct 
understanding  of  our  changing  days  is 
the  nation's,  perhaps  the  world's,  great- 
est need,  for  the  establishment  of  per- 
manent peace  and  prosperity.  To  this 
problem  these  volumes  address  them- 
selves fearlessly  and  intelligently.  There 
is  no  attempt  to  take  sides,  but  a  definite 
effort  is  made  to  lead  the  students  to 
comprehend  the  conditions,  causes,  and 
possible  corrections  involved  in  our 
civilized  life. 

A  simple  but  effective  method  is  em- 
ployed. The  volumes  are  divided  into 
twenty  units,  dealing  with  twenty 
themes  of  major  concern  in  American 
life.  Each  theme  is  fully  outlined,  the 
associated  problems  concisely  stated, 
and  a  series  of  exercises  set  up  to  secure 
thinking  on  the  part  of  the  student.  A 
vast  amount  of  information  is  made 
available  in  the  discussions;  and  the 
exercises  might  with  profit  be  studied 
by  all  Americans.  Numerous  effective 
illustrations,  drawn  by  Ruth  Taylor, 
and  reproductions  of  photographs  ac- 
company the  text. 

The  unit  theme  titles  indicate  wide 
and  important  fields:  We  and  Our 
World,  Our  Sources  of  Information, 
Government,  Suffrage,  Democratic 
Government,  Health  and  Safety, 
Wealth,  Money,  Spiritual  Values,  Re- 
lation of  the  United  States  to  Other 
Nations,  Adjusting  Personality  to  Re- 
ality, Education,  Economic  Organiza- 
tion and  Activities,  The  Common 
Man's  Outlook,  Home  and  Family, 
Plans  and  Planning,  "Sore  Spots,"  Se- 
curity, People  Needing  Special  Care, 
Looking  Forward.  However,  the  mere 
titles  are  poor  representations  of  the 
wealth  of  thought  and  material  under 

The  volumes  were  prepared  for  use 

in  the  first  two  years  of  high  schools, 

(Concluded  on  page  420) 



r  azy  days — reading  days — are  here 
*"*  again,  and  all  of  us  should  take  the 
time  and  improve  the  mind — even  if  we 
are  too  lazy  to  do  much  about  bracing 
the  body.  Books  for  old  and  young 
will  be  found  on  library  shelves,  where 
there  are  libraries — and  where  there 
are  no  libraries,  groups  of  people  can 
do  much  themselves  to  satisfy  this  urge 
to  keep  abreast  of  the  modern  books 
and  magazines.  One  group  has  adopted 
a  workable  plan  by  using  an  exchange 
system.  Since  the  individual  members 
could  not  afford  all  magazines  and 
books,  each  family  subscribed  for  one 
magazine,  read  it,  listed  it,  and  passed 
it  to  another,  keeping  a  record  of  the 
person  to  whom  it  was  lent.  This  fam- 
ily then  borrowed  someone  else's  mag- 
azine, passed  it  to  those  who  originally 
purchased  it  when  it  was  finished,  who 
in  turn  lent  it  to  someone  else.  In  this 
way,  all  the  group  received  the  benefit 
of  the  latest  magazines  with  less  ex- 
pense than  any  one  of  them  could  afford 
individually.        (Concluded  on  page  420) 

Summer  is  such  a  tearing  good 
time  for  the  children  that  you  had 
better  look  to  the  ease  of  keeping 
them  in  clothes  which  will  launder 
easily,  bear  the  brunt  of  rough  play, 
and  keep  them  neat  looking.  All 
of  these  requisites  can  be  met  by 
putting  them  in  Levi  Strauss  over- 
alls.   Be  sure  to  ask  for  Levi's. 

Ummm!  Good!  Raspberries  are 
coming  into  the  market — and  won't 
they  taste  good  in  this  recipe?  Even 
if  seeing  isn't  believing,  tasting  is: 
so  here  goes: 


1  c.  Globe  "Al"  flour 

1  c.  Globe  "Al"  whole  wheat  flour 

1  c.  Globe  "Al"  table  bran 

2  tsp.  baking  powder 
1/2  t.  soda 

1  t.  salt 

4  tbsp.  sugar 

1  egg 

2  tbsp.  Globe  "Al"  oil 
y%  c.  raspberry  jam 
IV2  c.  buttermilk 

Sift  white  flour,  measure,  add 
other  dry  ingredients  and  mix  well. 
Add  slightly  beaten  egg  blended 
with  oil,  then  add  jam  and  milk; 
stir  well.  Bake  in  oiled  muffin  tin 
in  a  hot  oven  (400  degrees)  about 
20  to  25  minutes. 

When  raspberry  time  is  over,  you 
might  try  other  jams — and  you'll 
like  them,  well,  if  not  quite  so  well, 
at  least  better  than  the  average! 

And,  of  course,  for  that  buttermilk 
to  use  in  those  raspberry  bran  gems 
— and  to  drink  this  hot  weather  you 
must  try  Midwest  Dairy  Company 
for  the  very  best  that  money  can 



Handiest  thing 

on  your  kitchen  shelf 

ONCE  you  find  out  how  many  good 
things  besides  biscuits  you  can  make 
quickly  and  easily  with  Globe  "Al" 
Biscuit  Flour  .  .  .  hardly  a  day  will 
pass  but  what  you'll  reach  for  that 
yellow  package  with  the  blue  chevron! 
Fluffy  dumplings,  flaky  meat  pie 
crusts,  apple  dumplings,  fruit  cob- 
blers, nut  bread,  cheese  straws,  short- 
cakes, coffee  cakes  and  lots  of  other 
good  things  almost  "make  them- 
selves" when  you  use  Globe  "Al" 
Biscuit  Flour,  because  the  important 
ingredients  are  already  measured  and 
mixed  for  you  ...  so  carefully  meas- 
ured, so  expertly  mixed,  that  success 
is  assured  before  you  start.  Buy  a 
package  of  Globe  "Al"  Biscuit  Flour 
today,  the  thrifty  shortcut  to  "Al" 

r       SU*OAY 



,n  box) 

***<•"  *o„, 

.M"  NiEAT  PIE 






■  °n  box) 



(Recipe  on 






THE    IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,    1938 

{BodL  (Rode 

{Concluded  from  page  418) 

but  would  be  equally  satisfactory  in  the 
upper  two  years.  Indeed,  the  volumes, 
compared  with  many  college  texts, 
could  be  used  profitably  by  competent 
teachers  in  college  classes.  Moreover, 
the  admirable  objectives,  contents,  and 
methods  should  make  these  books  most 
acceptable  for  the  multitude  of  study 
clubs  throughout  the  land. 

Era  readers  will  be  glad  to  know  that 
Dr.  Hilton  is  president  of  the  Oakland 
Stake  of  Zion.— /.  A.  W. 



(Concluded  from  page  419) 

In  handling  books,  one  member 
bought  a  book  and  charged  five  cents 
for  everyone  who  read  it  until  the 
original  price  was  repaid.  Everything 
over  and  above  the  cost  was  then  put 
into  the  treasury  against  the  purchase 
of  another  book.  In  this  way,  the  group 
has  built  quite  an  up-to-date,  worth- 
while library.  Of  course,  if  you  have 
the  money,  you  will  buy  many  of  these 
books  for  your  personal  book  shelves. 
"Where  there's  a  will,  there's  a  way" 
— in  the  matter  of  getting  good  books 
to  read. 

The  Golden  Sleeve 

(Agnes  Danforth  Hewes,  Doubleday, 

Doran  &  Co.,  1937,  280  pages, 


dventure  is  always  appealing  to 
boys — and  adventure  aplenty  they 
will  find  in  this  story  of  the  Golden 
West.  The  story  deals  with  the  ex- 
periences of  Bart  Sterling,  who  ar- 
rived in  the  West  to  spend  the  sum- 
mer vacation  with  an  uncle,  only  to 
find  that  the  uncle  has  disappeared.  His 
experiences  are  excitingly  told. 

Mrs.  Hewes,  the  author,  knows  the 
country  she  describes  and,  in  addition, 
knows  how  to  tell  a  stirring  tale.  How- 
ever, this  book  is  not  quite  up  to  the 
standard  she  set  when  she  wrote  The 
Codfish  Musket,  which  all  boys  will 
enjoy  reading.  — M.  C.  /. 

The  Yearling 

(Marjorie  Kinnan  Rawlings,  Charles 
Scribner's  Sons,  New  York,  1938. 
428  pages.    $2.00.) 

HPhe  southern  scene  of  inland  Florida 
■*■  comes  to  life  under  the  spell  of  Mrs. 
Rawling's  glorious  story  of  twelve- 
year-old  Jody,  his  mother  and  father, 
and  friends.  Rich  in  beauty  of  back- 
ground and  setting,  the  book  is  even 
richer  in  the  creation  of  unforgettable 

In  the  love  for  nature  stimulated 
through  the  book,  in  the  industry  of  the 
people  who  walk  through  its  pages,  in 
the  wholesome  reaction  manifested  to 
life  throughout  its  pages,  this  book  de- 
serves wide  recognition  and  will  win 


deep  affection  from  its  readers,  who 
will  range  from  the  age  of  Jody  through 
adulthood.— M.  C.  /. 

A  Sewing  Laboratory  Guide 
(May  Billings,   Brigham  Young  Uni- 
versity Press,  Provo,  Utah,  114  pages, 

A^ay  Billings,  clothing  instructor  at 
■*•"■*•  Brigham  Young  University,  has 
written  this  guide,  primarily  for  use  in 
her  own  classes.  However,  it  is  really 
a  book  which  any  woman  who  sincerely 
wishes  to  learn  the  fundamentals  of 
sewing  could  use  constantly.  The 
Guide  does  not  presume  to  replace 
commercial  patterns.  It  is  designed  to 
help  the  untrained  person  use  them 
intelligently,  at  the  same  time  building 
a  definite  way  of  mastering  the  techni- 
cal difficulties  of  sewing. 

Cutting,  fitting,  and  the  common 
problems  of  all  garment  construction 
are  analyzed  in  a  step  by  step  proce- 
dure which  is  clearly  illustrated  in  a 
simple  manner  which  will  appeal  to  the 
home  sewer  as  well  as  the  trained 
teacher.  Of  particular  interest  is  the 
method  for  making  evening  skirts  with- 
out turning  them  up  on  the  person;  the 
setting  in  of  sleeves  which  is  accom- 
plished with  absolute  success  if  follow- 
ed carefully. 

The  Guide  is  made  loose-leaf  style  to 
permit  the  admission  of  new  material. 


Introducing  the  Constellations 
(Robert  H.  Baker,  Viking  Press, 
New  York  City,  205  pages. 
1938.    $2.50.) 

A  group  of  children  to  whom  this 
■**■  book  was  given,  immediately  don- 
ned their  coats  on  a  bitter  night,  turned 
on  the  outside  light  so  that  they  might 
read,  and  proceeded  to  find  the  con- 
stellations so  fascinatingly  told  about 
in  the  book.  That  incident  alone 
should  prove  the  usefulness  of  the  book 
and  the  interest  which  it  arouses  in  the 
minds  of  would-be  astronomers. 

The  illustrations  are  plentiful,  help- 
ful, and  attractive.  Most  adults  will 
find  the  book  worth  their  reading.  Mr. 
Baker  is  Professor  in  Astronomy  at 
the  University  of  Illinois  and  his  en- 


thusiasm  and  his  knowledge  can  well 
be  made  to  function  in  the  lives  of  all 
children. — M.  C.  /. 

Laughing  Odyssey 

( Eileen  Bigland,  Macmillan  Company, 

San  Francisco,  1938.    307  pages. 


f^oiNG  to  Russia  in  search  of  happi- 
^  ness  may  sound  contradictory,  but 
that  is  what  sent  Eileen  Bigland  on  her 
"Fantastic  Journey"- — and  what  is  even 
more  fantastic,  she  found  much  happi- 
ness. Hilariously  amusing  at  times,  the 
book  can  become  stimulating  to 
thought.  In  this  book  as  in  Anne 
Lindbergh's  North  to  the  Orient,  the 
emphasis  was  laid  on  the  Russian  peo- 
ple themselves. — M.  C.  J. 

Macmillan's  Modern  Dictionary 
(Compiled  and  edited  under  the 
supervision  of  Bruce  Overton, 
Macmillan  Company.    1466  pages. 

'T'his  readable  dictionary  should  find 
a  ready  market.  The  type-size  is 
an  improvement  over  the  smaller  type 
dictionaries  now  generally  published; 
the  thumb-index  is  all  visible  from  the 
time  when  the  dictionary  is  opened;  all 
material,  biographical  and  topograph- 
ical, is  placed  in  one  section,  conserving 
time  and  energy  in  looking  for  material. 
Bruce  Overton  is  an  accepted  name 
in  the  field  of  letters  and  lends  au- 
thoritativeness  to  the  stupendous  un- 
dertaking of  compilation  of  a  new  dic- 
tionary.— M.  C,  J. 

Junior  Boat  Builder 
(H.  H.  Gilmore,  Macmillan 
Company,  San  Francisco,  1938. 
87  pages.    $1.25.) 

TT[7"hat  boy  doesn't  thrill  to  the  idea 
vv  of  using  his  hands  to  make  things 
to  enliven  his  hours  of  leisure?  When 
in  the  Junior  Boat  Builder  he  finds  the 
needed  information  in  a  readily  under- 
standable manner,  mother  can  be  as- 
sured that  his  time  will  be  profitably 
occupied.  In  addition  to  the  clear  in- 
structions, seventeen  plates  adequately 
illustrate  the  cutting  and  assembling 
plans.  The  book  will  be  a  boon  for 
the  summer  months  when  time  might 
otherwise  hang  heavily  or  mischiev- 
ously on  children's  hands. — M.  C.  /. 

Lisa  Vale 

(Alice  Higgins  Prouty,  Houghton 
Mifflin  Co.,  Boston,  1938.  $2.50. 
404  pages.) 

HThe  mother  of  a  modern  American 
family  can  appreciate  somewhat  the 
experiences  of  Lisa  Vale,  the  mother  in 
this  book.  Her  problems  are  an  out- 
growth of  the  current  acceptance  of 
liquor  without  education  in  the  harmful 
results  from  its  indulgence.  The  moth- 
er's insistence  on  preserving  the  family 
pattern  is  welcome  relief  from  the 
tendency  to  easy  disruption. — M.  C.  /. 

Self-Improvement  in  Reading 
Pitkin,  Newton,  Langham,  McGraw- 
Hill  Book  Company,  Inc.,  New  York, 
1937.     122  pages.    56  cents.) 

"Pitkin  will  be  remembered  for  his 
■*■  capable  book,  The  Art  of  Rapid 
Silent  Reading.  His  companion  authors 
for  this  exercise  book  were  also  his 
collaborators  in  the  book,  Learning 
How  to  Learn,  which  was  reviewed  in 
The  Improvement  Era  for  September, 
1936,  page  562.  With  the  increase  in 
books,  naturally  we  all  shall  have  to 
learn  to  read  better.  The  exercises  in 
this  book  are  designed  to  help  all  read- 
ers check  the  speed  in  reading  as  well 
as  the  comprehension  of  what  is  read. 
The  book  consists  of  three  divisions: 
the  selections  for  reading,  the  questions 
on  the  selections,  and  the  keys  to  the 
correct  answers. 

The  book  is  well  worth  the  cost. 
Even  the  best  of  us  tends  to  become 
careless  unless  we  keep  in  practice. 
The  musician  never  ceases  his  exer- 
cises. Since  all  of  us  must  read,  we 
should  never  cease  our  practice  to  be- 
come better  readers. — M.  C.  J. 

Tal  of  the  Four  Tribes 
(Herbert  Best,  Doubleday,  Doran 
and  Co.,  Inc.,  Garden  City,  New 
York,  1938.     295  pages.     $2.00.) 

Cince  the  time  when  Livingstone  first 
^  penetrated  into  the  African  wilder- 
ness to  the  present,  adventure  and  mys- 
tery have  been  associated  with  the 
name  "Africa".  Into  this  book  of  fic- 
tion for  boys,  Mr.  Best  has  cleverly 
woven  a  story  which  will  appeal  for  its 
drama  and  which  will  leave  positive 
ideas  as  to  what  must  be  required  of 
those  who  would  be  leaders. — M.  C.  J. 

The  Nuggets  of  Singing  Creek 
(Grace  S.  Dawson,  Doubleday, 
Doran  and  Co.,  Inc.,  Garden  City, 
New  York,  1938.    304  pages. 

T17hat  lad  wouldn't  be  delighted  at 
^*  the  prospect  of  sailing  from  Bos- 
ton via  Cape  Horn?  And  that  wasn't 
all  the  adventure  either,  for  when  the 
hero  arrived  in  California,  he  was  right 
in  the  midst  of  the  gold  rush  and  had  to 
fight  for  his  rights  along  with  his  father 
against  claim  jumpers  and  various  ruth- 
less men.  How  he  met  the  situations 
forms  the  basis  for  a  good  yarn. 

— M.  C.  /. 

The  Runaway  Deer 

(Barbara  Fleury  and  Illustrated  by 

Lilly  Sompii,  Macmillan  Company. 


"pOR  younger  children,  this  illustrated 
■*"  story  of  Gus,  the  baby  deer,  will 
prove  entertaining.  Indirectly,  the  les- 
son of  security  in  the  home  is  taught. 
Although  the  young  deer  found  ad- 
venture in  his  experiences  away  from 
home,  he  finally  decided  that  the  best 
place  of  all  was  his  own  deer  park. 

— M.  C.  ]. 

S^ocji&a  with, 




ML  JthjL  QotifohmjOL  7JtlAALO/L 


Formerly  of  the  California  Mission 

"Delieving  with  Tennyson  that  "things 
■^  seen  are  mightier  than  things 
heard,"  the  missionaries  of  the  Cali- 
fornia Mission  are  using  visual  aids  to 
introduce  the  Book  of  Mormon  to 
those  who  are  not  acquainted  with  its 
teachings.  Our  reception  has  been  so 
cordial  and  our  results  so  gratifying, 
that  it  seems  worth  while  to  relate  some 
of  our  experiences. 

During  the  year  1937  Elders  Wallace 
King,  Dee  C.  Anderson,  Sterling  All- 
red,  and  J.  Shelby  Arrigona,  pre- 
sented an  illustrated  slide  lecture,  pre- 
pared by  the  Church  Radio  Publicity 
and  Mission  Literature  Committee,  be- 
fore more  than  50,000  persons.  The 
ruins  which  are  being  unearthed  in 
Mexico,  Central,  and  South  America, 
have  furnished  subject  material  for  the 
program.  The  presentation  has  been 
applauded  wherever  it  has  been  given 
and  requests  for  it  were  at  times  too 
numerous  to  accommodate  during  the 
time  allotted  in  some  localities.  As  a 
result  of  this  particular  emphasis  a 
total  of  13,387  Books  of  Mormon  were 
distributed  in  the  California  Mission 
during  1937. 

Our  paramount  objective  has  been 
to  present  the  lecture  before  members 
of  service  clubs,  colleges,  high  schools, 
hospitals,  department  stores,  and  hotels. 

In  meeting  with  the  heads  of  these 
various  organizations,  we  found  them 
eager  and  willing  to  cooperate  with  us, 
making  the  scheduling  of  the  lectures 
a  pleasant  task.  Their  interest  is  evi- 
denced by  the  following  experience: 
One  of  our  first  contacts  was  with  the 
Venerable  Master  of  the  Scottish  Rite 
Order  of  Masonry.  Though  he  is  a 
prominent  lawyer  and  banker,  he  was 
happy  to  discuss  Mormonism  with  us. 
He  had  a  good  understanding  of  our 
religious  teachings  and  praised  our  or- 
ganization highly.  A  recent  trip  through 
Utah,  and  his  understanding  of  our 
tenets,  opened  up  the  way  for  an 
audience  of  four  hundred  Scottish  Rite 
Masons  to  hear  our  lecture.  That  it 
was  appreciated  by  them  is  certain,  due 
to  the  fact  that  we  were  able  to  secure 
other  engagements  through  the  recom- 
mendations of  the  members  attending 
this  lecture. 

One  day  we  met  with  the  Director 
of  Public  Relations  of  one  of  Cali- 
fornia's leading  department  stores  and 
explained  our  work  to  him.  He  re- 
ceived us  courteously  and  spoke  re- 
spectfully of  the  Church  leaders  with 
whom  he  had  associated.  We  found 
that  he  had  carefully  read  Seven  Claims 
of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  by  Dr.  Widt- 

soe  and  Dr.  F.  S.  Harris,  Jr.,  and 
also  had  on  his  desk  copies  of  Why 
I  Believe  the  Book  of  Mormon  to 
be  the  Word  of  God,  and  Mormon 
Doctrine  Plain  and  Simple.  A  lecture 
was  scheduled  in  the  store  auditorium, 
and  we  were  introduced  to  an  assem- 
blage of  four  hundred  persons  as  mis- 
sionaries of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ 
of  Latter-day  Saints,  and  were  assured 
of  our  welcome  to  return  and  give  the 
program  again. 

Another  success  came  in  booking  our 
program  for  the  Lecture  Room  of  the 
Los  Angeles  Public  Library.  Hundreds 
of  letters  were  written  to  school  and 
club  directors  throughout  the  city  in- 
viting them  to  review  our  lecture  at  that 
time.  Five  hundred  people  were  in 
attendance,  and  evidenced  interest  in 
the  subject.  We  were  privileged  to 
answer  many  questions  concerning  the 
Book  of  Mormon  and  also  to  book 
many  dates  for  the  lecture  to  be  pre- 
sented in  various   civic  organizations. 

We  desired  in  particular  that  the 
high  school  and  college  students  of 
Los  Angeles  County  should  hear  our 
message.  We  called  on  the  chairman 
of  the  assembly  programs  committee 
of  the  city  schools  and  explained  our 
purpose.  After  much  questioning,  he 
finally  allowed  us  to  present  the  pro- 
gram before  the  students  and  teachers 
of  two  schools.  We  remained  at  each 
school  an  entire  day,  lecturing  to  in- 
dividual history  classes.  During  that 
time  we  appeared  before  1,600  students. 
We  then  requested  the  principals  of  the 
schools  to  report  their  rating  of  the 
program  to  the  committee  chairman, 
and  within  a  few  days  we  returned  to 
his  office.  He  gave  us  a  letter  of  in- 
troduction to  the  administrators  of  all 
schools  under  his  jurisdiction,  and  in 
the  letter  gave  our  program  a  superior 

With  this  as  an  opening  we  visited 
high  school  principals,  and  college  pres- 
idents, and  within  twenty  days  13,000 
pupils  had  heard  our  story. 

We  have  been  welcomed  similarly 
by  the  leaders  and  students  of  Cath- 
olic Schools,  and  more  than  2000  of 
their  students  have  already  heard  our 
message.  More  than  3000  Indians  have 
also  listened  to  our  presentation. 

Repeatedly  principals  and  teachers 
have  remarked  to  us  that  their  out- 
standing students  are  members  of  our 
Church.  Perhaps  they  have  been  puz- 
zled by  this  fact,  but  the  reason  is  quite 
apparent  when  we  acquaint  them  with 
the  many  opportunities  the  Church 
offers  its  members. 




T_Tas  the  course  of  study  been  enjoyed 
so  far  this  year  by  all  the  Priest- 
hood classes?  We  hope  so,  for  this 
would  indicate  two  things — that  the 
classes  have  been  well  conducted  and 
that  the  members  have  done  their  part. 
It  is  necessary  that  both  of  these  fac- 
tors shall  be  present  for  the  fullest  en- 
joyment of  the  course. 

To  do  their  part  well  is  it  not  neces- 
sary that  the  members  shall  study  the 
lessons?  How  can  they  study  them  if 
they  do  not  have  the  textbook  written 
by  Dr.  and  Sister  Widtsoe?  This  book 
is  one  of  the  very  best  for  the  Priest- 
hood and  the  home  that  has  ever  been 
provided  for  quorum  use.  Certainly 
officers  and  teachers  should  make  sure 
that  each  class  is  well  supplied  with  the 
textbook.    This  is  their  duty. 

We  say  again  that  those  who  pro- 
vide the  family  meals  should  have  a 
knowledge  of  the  contents  of  this  book, 
particularly  of  Chapters  9  to  15  in- 
clusive. Therein  are  presented  the 
positive  aspects  of  the  Lord's  law  of 
health,  the  Word  of  Wisdom. 

How  can  we  have  health  if  we  do 
not  know  what  to  eat  and  drink  in 
order  to  maintain  health?  The  Word 
of  Wisdom — a  Modern  Interpretation, 
is  a  book  that  clearly  but  briefly  tells 
us  about  these  things.  It  can  be  ob- 
tained in  either  a  cloth,  or  paper-bound 
edition,  in  the  latter  at  50c  per  copy, 
from  the  Deseret  Book  Company. 

We  again  call  these  things  to  the 
attention  of  our  readers,  knowing  we 
shall  do  a  service  to  all  who  read  and 
practice  the  teachings  of  this  excellent 
book. — Joseph  F.  Merrill. 


T'he  Personal  Welfare  committees  of 
the  quorums  cannot  accomplish 
their  duties  satisfactorily  unless  they 
maintain  a  series  of  cards,  one  for  each 
member  of  the  quorum,  on  which  is 
listed  information  concerning  all  quo- 
rum members.  This  means  that  the 
Personal  Welfare  committee  should 
make  a  survey  of  the  membership  of 
the  quorum  to  learn  of  their  financial, 
mental  and  spiritual  needs.  With  this 
information  at  hand  the  committee 
should  with  all  its  might  attempt  to 
supply  the  apparent  needs  as  far  as  it  is 
able  as  a  committee  to  do  so,  and  to 
call  upon  the  bishops  for  further  assist- 
ance whenever  that  may  be  necessary. 


'T'he   stake   Melchizedek   Priesthood 
A    committees     have     many     oppor- 
tunities for  serving  the  Priesthood  quo- 


rums.  One  of  the  most  important  and 
valuable  is  the  training  of  the  quorums 
in  the  manner  of  conducting  meetings,  in 
the  duties  of  the  various  officers,  and 
generally  in  the  proper  conduct  of  the 
business  of  the  quorum.  In  visits  to 
the  quorums  such  matters  could  profit- 
ably be  discussed  with  the  quorum  of- 


'T'he  secretary  of  a  quorum  composed 
of  ward  groups  should  compile  the 
group  records  to  be  reported  to  the 
stake  clerk.  The  ward  group  secre- 
tary should  report  to  the  quorum  sec- 
retary, who  in  turn  will  report  the  com- 
piled information  to  the  stake  clerk. 
The  ward  groups  must  not  become 
separate  entities;  they  are  but  divisions 
of  the  quorum.  For  that  reason,  also, 
it  is  very  important  that  every  quorum 
made  up  of  ward  groups  meet  as  a  quo- 
rum at  least  once  a  month,  and  that 


Tn  some  quorums  the  class  instructor 
calls  upon  different  men  at  different 
sessions  to  serve  as  class  instructors. 
In  that  way  during  a  month  several 
men  are  given  practice  in  teaching  un- 
der the  guidance  of  the  quorum  in- 
structor. This,  if  not  carried  too  far, 
might  be  tried  out  in  many  quorums. 


A  regular  program  should  be  pro- 
**  vided  for  the  monthly  Priesthood 
quorum  meetings.  The  quorums  are 
at  liberty  to  choose  the  subject  to  be 
discussed.  Matters  of  quorum  business, 
of  course,  should  be  taken  up,  and  all 
other  routine  quorum  matters,  but,  in 
addition,  a  full  forty  minutes  should  be 
devoted  to  some  subject  dealing  with 
Gospel  principles.  Questions  and  an- 
swers should  be  encouraged,  and  the 
hour  be  made  a  happy,  interesting  and 
profitable  one. 


T'he  stake  Melchizedek  Priesthood 
committees  could  profitably  engage 
in  leadership  training  among  the  Priest- 
hood quorums.  This  might  involve  the 
preparation  of  special  programs  for  the 
regular  monthly  meetings,  dealing  with 
questions  and  methods  of  leadership. 
In  this  Church,  every  man  may  at  one 
time  or  another  be  called  to  a  position 
of  leadership.  There  is  no  special  body 
of  leaders  in  the  Church.  All  should 
hold  themselves  ready  for  service  as 
they  may  be  needed.  For  that  reason 
leadership  training  is  of  great  import- 

ance and  could  well  be  discussed  by  the 
stake  Melchizedek  Priesthood  com- 


Ts    all    going    well    with    Priesthood 

*  quorums  in  each  stake?  According 
to  reports  there  is  a  decided  improve- 
ment in  the  activities  of  many  quorums. 
This  is  a  cause  of  thankfulness  and 
congratulation  to  all  responsible  for  the 
improvement,  among  whom  we  name 
the  stake  committees,  the  quorum  of- 
ficers and  the  members. 

Shall  we  not  keep  in  mind  that  the 
quorums  or  groups  of  Priesthood  will 
not  be  making  satisfactory  progress 
unless  the  stake  committees  and  the 
quorum  and  group  officers  are  energetic 
and  devoted  to  their  leadership  and 
supervisory  duties?  The  rank  and  file 
do  not  outrun  their  leaders. 

We  admonish  stake  presidencies  to 
see  that  quorums  are  kept  fully  officer- 
ed with  suitable  men  in  the  presidencies. 
We  urge  stake  committees  to  be  dili- 
gent and  enthusiastic  in  their  super- 
visory duties.  They  have  committed 
to  their  hands  a  very  important  job.  A 
new  life  among  the  quorums  will  give 
evidence  of  the  activities  of  these  com- 

An  earnest  request  made  of  these 
committees  is  that  they  see  to  it  that 
the  quarterly  report  of  every  quorum 
shall  be  promptly  made  to  them  and 
copy  sent  on  to  the  Church  Office  Build- 
ing, Salt  Lake  City.  Further,  the  re- 
ports should  be  complete.  The  neces- 
sary information  should  be  readily  ob- 
tainable from  quorum  and  bishop's 


Tn  the  May  issue  of  the  Improvement 

*  Era,  under  the  Melchizedek  Priest- 
hood quorum,  beginning  on  page  294, 
there  appeared  a  graph  outlining  the 
organization  for  the  supervision  of 
Melchizedek  Priesthood  quorums  in 
each  stake.  The  graph  showed  the 
stake  Melchizedek  Priesthood  commit- 
tee to  be  composed  of  a  member  of  the 
stake  presidency,  as  chairman;  not 
more  than  three  members  of  the  stake 
high  council,  with  a  representative  from 
one  or  more  quorums  of  Elders,  Sev- 
enties, and  High  Priests  within  the 
stake,  this  committee  to  supervise  the 
work  of  Priesthood  groups  and  quo- 
rums in  the  stake. 

It  appears  that  in  the  minds  of  some 
there  is  confusion  as  to  whether  or  not 
this  stake  Melchizedek  Priesthood  com- 
mittee  automatically  does   away  with 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,    1938 

the  stake  Welfare  committee  function- 
ing in  connection  with  the  Church 
Welfare  Plan,  and  if  both  committees 
are  to  be  continued,  then  just  what  re- 
lationship should  exist  between  these 
two  committees. 

The  stake  Welfare  committee  is  to 
be  continued  as  before,  with  a  member 
of  the  stake  presidency  as  chairman, 
with  the  following  as  members:  Stake 
work  director,  chairman  of  the  Bish- 
ops' executive  council,  stake  Relief 
Society  president,  stake  Relief  Society 
work  director,  and  secretary,  if  desired. 

In  order  to  harmonize  the  work  of 
these  two  committees,  because  of  re- 
sponsibility they  may  have  occasional- 
ly in  common,  it  is  advised  that  the 
same  member  of  the  stake  presidency 
be  named  as  chairman  of  both  these 
committees,  so  that  should  the  occasion 
require,  these  committees,  composed 
of  Priesthood  representatives,  and  the 
stake  Welfare  committee  above  named, 
could  meet  together  jointly  and  there 
formulate  such  plans  for  the  directing 
of  welfare  work  among  the  Priesthood 
quorums  of  the  stake,  in  cooperation 
with  the  Church  Welfare  Plan,  as  may 
be  desired.  If  this  plan  of  relationship 
is  understood  and  applied,  it  should 
avoid  any  confusion  or  misunderstand- 
ing that  might  otherwise  arise. 


As  Reported  by  the  Church 
Welfare  Committee 

"pLDER  Joseph  E.  Geertsen  reports 
*"*'  the  following  project  which  the 
First  Quorum  of  Elders  in  the  5th 
Ward  of  Mount  Ogden  Stake  is  un- 
dertaking : 

We  spent  much  time  and  thought  in  at- 
tempting to  work  out  a  project  which 
would  be  both  sensible  and  profitable.  Be- 
ing a  city  ward  it  appeared  that  an  agri- 
cultural project  was  impractical.  We  de- 
cided that,  since  we  are  in  an  urban  district 
and  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  farming 
communities  which  have  a  surplus  that  goes 
to  waste  every  year,  the  members  of  the 
Elders'  quorum,  together  with  their  wives, 
would  meet  at  least  once  a  month  and 
preserve  fruits  and  vegetables  which  we 
can  obtain  for  nothing  from  these  farm- 
ing districts.  During  the  months  of  the 
year  when  we  cannot  preserve  fruits  and 
vegetables  we  decided  to  make  quilts. 

We  sincerely  appreciate  the  assistance 
we  receive  from  our  wives.  They  are  al- 
ways willing  to  help  with  the  project.  It 
could  not  be  a  success  without  their  work 
and  cooperation.  Though  it  may  be  hard 
to  believe,  the  Elders  are  doing  their  share 
of  the  work  in  tying  and  quilting.  After 
several  hours'  work  we  have  a  social  with 
some  form  of  entertainment,  and  then  serve 
refreshments.  The  meetings  are  held  in 
the  various  homes  of  quorum  members.  Our 
first  meeting  had  twelve  in  attendance  and 
since  then  the  numbers  have  increased.  All 
who  have  participated  speak  very  highly 
of  the  work  and  the  enjoyment  they  re- 
ceive at  these  meetings.  Some  have  re- 
quested that  we  hold  them  oftener  than 
once  a  month.  Thus  far  we  have  made 
several  quilts  and  are  looking  forward  to 
the  season  when  we  can  start  preserving 
vegetables  and  fruits. 



"VITe  regret  that  we  failed  to  send 
""  some  literature  to  the  field,  ac- 
cording to  an  announcement  made  in 
the  June  Era,  p.  61.  This  was  due  to 
some  unavoidable  delays.  So  it  was 
not  until  June  that  the  General  Com- 
mittee made  the  first  shipment  to  the 
field  of  any  literature.  This  was  a 
booklet  entitled  Alcohol  Talks  To 
Youth,  which  went  out  to  the  chairmen 
of  stake  Melchizedek  Priesthood  com- 
mittees accompanied  by  instructions  on 
what  to  do  with  the  shipment. 

This  booklet  will  be  read  with  great 
interest  by  all  into  whose  hands  it 
comes.  It  is  brief,  attractively  written 
and  printed,  and  brim  full  of  solid  facts 
about  alcohol  that  every  one — drinker 
or  not — will  want  to  know.  Alcohol 
tells  a  story  about  himself  in  such  a 
charming  and  truthful  way  that  all, 
young  and  old,  will  be  delighted  on 
reading  it.  The  language  of  the  story  is 
simple,  clear  and  eloquent.  It  is  ex- 
pected that  every  member  of  the 
Church  over  twelve  years  of  age  will 
be  given  opportunity  to  read  the  book- 


"NJow  the  question  arises — "Is  the  field 
™  organized  to  distribute  the  book- 
let?" The  organization  recommended 
was  outlined  in  the  April  Era,  p.  232 
and  the  May  Era,  p.  296.  It  is  hoped 
that  the  stake  and  ward  committees 
have  all  been  set  up,  the  Church  mem- 
bership in  the  wards  assigned  to  can- 
vassers, etc. 

As  soon  as  they  are  ready  other 
pieces  of  literature — booklets,  folders, 
etc.,  will  shortly  be  sent  to  the  field. 
Thus  the  committees  will  all  have  ma- 
terial to  keep  them  busy.  Hence  every 
stake  and  ward  should  organize  its 
committee,  if  this  has  not  been  done, 
without  further  delay. 

The  plan  calls  for  a  personal  contact 
with  every  member  of  the  Church,  cer- 
tainly every  one  over  twelve  years 
old,  to  interest  him  or  her  in  the  cam- 
paign. The  book  named  above  will 
appeal  to  all  of  these. 

Further,  the  plan  calls  for  the  most 
thorough  and  complete  anti-liquor  to- 
bacco crusade  ever  undertaken  in  the 
Church.  Booklets,  folders,  leaflets, 
projection  machines,  billboards,  movies, 
radio,  magazines  and  newspapers  will, 
it  is  hoped,  all  play  their  part.  But  the 
whole  plan  is  based  upon  personal  con- 
tact, the  primary  missionary  method  of 
the  Church. 

So  the  call  is  to  all  stakes,  wards, 
Priesthood  quorums,  and  auxiliaries  to 
cooperate  fully  in  order  that  the  cam- 
paign may  from  this  time  go  vigorously 


A  n  impressive  sight  was  witnessed  in 
the  Salt  Lake  Tabernacle  on  the 
occasion  of  the  Mutual  Improvement 
Conference  meeting  Friday,  June  10, 
1938,  when  four  thousand  officers  and 
teachers  of  the  great  M.  I.  A.  enthusi- 
astically and  unanimously  adopted  by  a 
standing  vote  the  sentiments  and  pledge 
reprinted  on  page  417. 

The  great  organization  that  took  the 
pledge  knew  that  it  was  acting  in  har- 
mony with  the  attitude  of  the  Church  on 
the  matters  contained  in  the  statement. 
The  Church  does  strongly  advocate 
keeping  the  Word  of  Wisdom  by  all 
its  members  and  other  people  as  well. 
The  Church  is  stoutly  opposed  to  smok- 
ing of  tobacco  and  drinking  of  alco- 
holic beverages  and  to  the  persuasive 
and  falsifying  advertisements  of  these 

When  it  is  remembered  that  in  1937 
there  was  spent  in  the  United  States  for 
advertising  cigarettes  the  vast  sum  of 
$30,754,854  and  that  137.1  billions  of 
cigarettes  were  sold  we  get  some  idea 
of  the  magnitude  of  the  evil  from  which 
we  would  like  our  people  to  become 
entirely  free. 

We  heartily  commend  the  great 
M.  I.  A.  for  the  firm  and  loyal  stand 
they  have  taken.  And  we  might  add 
that  the  General  Boards  of  all  the  aux- 
iliary organizations  are  likewise  heart- 
ily cooperating  in  the  Church-wide 
anti-liquor-tobacco  campaign. 

■  ♦  » 

Another  interesting  instance  of  ac- 
complishment for  the  Priesthood  comes 
from  Mantua,  Box  Elder  Stake.  When 
the  subject  of  a  Priesthood  quorum  pro- 
ject was  first  proposed,  many  of  the 
brethren  thought  that  such  a  project 
would  hardly  be  worth-while  because  of 
the  fact  that  the  dry  land  of  that  section 
could  yield  not  more  than  from  12  to 
15  bushels  to  the  acre,  and  irrigated 
land  seemed  to  be  entirely  unavailable. 
Moreover,  it  appeared  that  in  the  sum- 
mer time  able-bodied  men  were  over- 
crowded with  work,  and  so  the  ques- 
tions naturally  arose:  "Why  have  pro- 
jects when  the  busy  people  would  be 
burdened   with   more    work?      Would 

it  not  be  cheaper  to  make  additional 
donations  in  cash?"  Besides,  some  said 
it  is  too  late  to  start  farming  now. 

The  ward  Welfare  committee  de- 
cided, however,  to  present  the  matter 
to  the  High  Priests,  Seventies,  and 
Elders  in  their  Sunday  morning  Priest- 
hood class.  This  group  decided  to  call 
a  special  meeting  of  all  the  Priesthood, 
both  Melchizedek  and  Aaronic.  Pres- 
ident William  C.  Horsley  and  Bishop 
Anton  M.  Hansen  of  the  stake  com- 
mittee were  invited  to  attend.  At  this 
meeting  it  was  learned  that  30  acres  of 
dry  farmland  and  two  acres  of  irrigated 
land  could  be  secured  with  the  under- 
(Concluded  on  page  424) 


THE    IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,    1938 

Melchizedek  Priesthood 

{Concluded  [com  page  422) 

standing  that  the  water  assessment  be 
worked  out  on  the  irrigated  land.  The 
brethren  decided  that  the  cultivating 
and  planting  of  the  land  was  not  only 
practical  but  desirable,  because  they 
believed  that  by  bringing  the  brethren 
together  as  a  group  they  would  develop 
a  fraternal  spirit  as  well  as  produce 
food  for  those  who  might  be  in  need. 
A  ward  work  director  was  asked  to 
make  the  necessary  arrangements  for 
the  land  and  to  call  on  the  men  who 
would  be  needed  to  cultivate  and  plant 
the  crop.  The  30  acres  of  wheat  were 
planted  first,  and  then  work  was  im- 
mediately started  on  the  potato  land, 
and  at  the  proper  time  the  potatoes 
were  planted.  In  the  fall,  crops  were 

In  addition  to  these  two  projects, 
others  in  the  ward,  and  particularly  the 
bishop,  made  a  liberal  donation  of  ap- 
ples, of  which  he  had  a  surplus  crop. 
These  were  harvested  by  quorum  mem- 
bers. It  was  then  discovered  that  there 
were  some  shade  trees  that  needed  to 
be  removed,  and  these  were  up-rooted, 
moved  away,  and  a  wood  project  in- 
augurated. For  the  most  part  these 
projects  were  carried  on  by  quorum 
members  at  a  time  when  they  were 
extremely  busy.  They  made  a  real 
sacrifice,  but  they  worked  cheerfully, 
unitedly,  and  industriously,  and  a  spirit 
of  brotherliness  and  love  was  created 
which  repaid  many  times  over  for  the 
sacrifices  which  they  made. 

As  a  result  of  the  projects  they  pro- 
duced 170  bushels  of  wheat,  25,145 
pounds  of  potatoes,  and  1,600  pounds 
of  winter  apples  which  were  turned 
over  to  the  stake  storehouse  to  assist 
in  carrying  on  the  Welfare  plan.  Dur- 
ing the  past  winter  a  number  of  families 
who  were  the  recipients  of  the  foods 
produced  in  these  projects  were  able 
to  assist  in  other  ward  activities  in  re- 
payment of  the  commodities  which  they 
received.  The  ward  population  in  the 
Mantua  Ward  is  375  persons.  Of 
this  number  94  members  participated 
in  the  projects,  and  the  enthusiasm  was 
so  irresistible  that  two  men  who  were 
not  members  of  the  Church  asked  per- 
mission to  join  in  and  help. 

In  concluding  their  report  the  Man- 
tua Ward  committee  says:  "We  feel 
that  this  Church  Welfare  plan  is  one 
of  the  most  progressive  things  the 
Church  has  ever  introduced.  We  are 
profoundly  grateful  for  the  experiences 
we  have  had  during  the  past  season." 


By  Elder  Melvin  J.  Ballard 
\kjz  are  anxious  that  we  build  Priest- 
"*  hood  quorums  into  a  brotherhood. 
The  quorum  committees  suggested,  if 
active,  would  provide  everything  that  a 
fraternity  or  brotherhood,  or  even  a 
lodge,  offers  to  men.  We  have  no  quar- 
rel with  lodges  for  the  other  fellow,  but 
we  have  no  need  of  lodges  in  this 
Church,   because  the  Priesthood  quo- 


rum  offers  everything  that  a  lodge 

The  quorum  miscellaneous  commit- 
tee deals  with  the  social  life  of  the 
quorum.  Social  life  is  important  to 
make  for  fraternity.  Men  get  better 
acquainted  in  one  social  evening  than 
probably  in  half  a  dozen  quorum  meet- 
ings. A  social  brings  the  wives  of 
the  brethren  into  activity.  The  wife 
if  she  becomes  interested,  can  do  much 
to  stimulate  and  inspire  the  husband 
to  activity  in  his  quorum.  At  least  once 
every  three  months  there  should  be 
a  quorum  social  function.  If  it  is  often- 
er,  even  once  a  month,  it  would  not 
hurt;  but  certainly  a  quorum  that  goes 
a  year  without  a  social  function  is  not 
very  much  alive  or  alert  or  awake. 
We  urge  that  you  utilize  the  social  op- 
portunities of  your  quorum  through  the 
miscellaneous  committee,  to  create  that 
closer  contact,  better  fellowship,  good 
feeling,  and  human  interest  in  each 
other,  which  came  through  social  ac- 

Music  stimulates  interest.  The 
Church  music  committee  has  author- 
ized the  publication  of  a  little  volume 
of  songs,  compiled  by  J.  Spencer  Corn- 
wall, a  member  of  our  committee  and 
the  leader  of  the  Tabernacle  Choir, 
entitled  "Sacred  Choruses  For  Male 
Voices."  This  arrangement  of  some 
seventy-five  songs  is  available  at  the 
Deseret  Book  Company  at  75c  a  copy 
or  $8.00  a  dozen.  These  are  splendid 
arrangements  of  our  own  songs  and 
suitable  choruses  for  male  voices.  With 
this  help  it  would  be  easily  possible 
for  a  group  of  Elders  or  Seventies  or 
High  Priests  to  present  a  fine  chorus. 
The  man  with  a  good  voice  who  has 
not  been  coming  to  quorum  meetings 
may  be  invited  to  join  a  quorum  quar- 

tet, might  be  reached  through  the  so- 
cial activities  of  the  quorum  and  in  a 
musical  way. 

The  Church  music  committee  has 
provided  for  the  Church  choirs  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  music,  suitable  for 
the  maintenance  not  only  of  singing 
groups  in  the  quorum,  but  also  for 
ward  choirs.  This  material  will  be 
found  at  the  Deseret  Book  Company. 
Please  become  familiar  with  and  utilize 
it.  Choirs  must  have  new  music  to  be- 
come interested  and  to  supply  the  peo- 
ple with  new  and  interesting  music. 

The  Lord  has  said,  at  the  conclusion 
of   Section    107  in  the   Doctrine   and 


Wherefore,  now  let  every  man  learn 
his  duty,  and  to  act  in  the  office  in  which 
he  is  appointed,  in  all  diligence. 

He  that  is  slothful  shall  not  be  counted 
worthy  to  stand,  and  he  that  learns  not 
his  duty  and  shows  himself  not  approved 
shall  not  be  counted  worthy  to  stand. 

Our  right  and  title  to  these  blessings 
is  in  jeopardy  unless  we  see  to  it  as 
shepherds  of  the  flock  that  we  save 
these  men,  by  providing  them  with  ac- 
tivity, by  keeping  them  interested,  by 
having  their  lives  subscribe  to  their 
professions — for  no  man  should  re- 
ceive this  Priesthood  without  oath  and 
covenant  that  he  will  personally  live 
up  to  the  standards  of  the  High  Priest, 
the  Seventy,  or  the  Elder,  and  will 
magnify  his  calling.  When  we  ordain 
men  to  the  Priesthood  we  should  im- 
press upon  them  that  they  are  enter- 
ing into  a  sacred  covenant.  I  would 
not  object  to  having  them  lift  up  their 
hands  and  make  the  covenant  before 
their  brethren,  as  they  receive  the 
Priesthood,  that  they  will  try  to  live 
up  to  all  Priesthood  requirements. 


Text:     The  Word  of  Wisdom — A  Modern  Interpretation,  by  John  A. 
Widtsoe  and  Leah  D.  Widtsoe. 


Grains  as  Food 

(First  Part  of  Chapter  12) 

Note  to  Class  Leaders:  The  following 
lesson  may  be  given  in  a  somewhat  shorter 
period  and  the  extra  time  taken  for  a 
review  of  some  other  lesson  which  may 
have  been  given  hurriedly. 

I.  Grains  as  "Staff  of  Life." 

1.  Their  general  use  since  prehistoric 

2.  Increased    use    as    agriculture    im- 

3.  Keeping  qualities. 

4.  Economy  of  use. 

5.  Source  of  energy. 

II.  Composition  of  Grains. 

1.  Contain  the  six  classes  of  food  con- 

2.  Proportions      differ      in      different 

3.  Good  source  of  body  minerals. 

4.  Rich  in  vitamin  content. 

5.  Protein  good  but  not  always   the 

III.  Variety  of  Grains. 

1.  Different    grains    used   in    different 

2.  Reasons  for  varying  use. 

3.  Analysis  different  grains. 

IV.  Breakfast  Cereals. 

1.  Whole   grain. 

2.  Highly  milled. 

3.  Why     whole-grain     products     are 
better  food. 

Questions,  Problems,  Projects 

1.  Where  are  grains  most  used  as  human 
food?  Where  is  their  use  limited?  Why  is 
this  so? 

2.  What  is  the  meaning  of  the  term 
"Staff  of  Life"?  What  foods  best  fit  that 
requirement?     Discuss  the  reasons  therefor. 

3.  In  what  food  principle  are  grains  most 
lacking  and  how  may  this  deficiency  be 
met?  What  is  the  danger  if  cereal  foods 
form  too  largely  the  bulk  of  the  diet? 

4.  Why  should  whole  grain  foods  and 
cereals  be  given  the  preference  for  normal 

5.  Make  a  survey  of  your  family  food 
for  the  past  month  and  report  on  its  ade- 
quacy regarding  the  necessary  food  min- 
erals and  vitamins  so  necessary  for  good 
nutrition.  Why  are  grain  products — if  used 
properly — so  valuable  to  those  who  have 
a  limited  income  as  well  as  for  those  whose 
budget  for  food  is  more  liberal? 

6.  Report  on  the  cost  of  the  devitalized 
or  packaged  grain  products  you  may  use 
in  your  family  for  one  week  as  compared 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 

with  the  cost  of  natural,  unmilled  grains. 
What  do  you  pay  for  a  bushel  of  grain 
in  the  form  of  packaged  breakfast  cereal? 


Carbohydrate  Foods 
(Second  Part  of  Chapter  12.) 

I.  Starch  and  Sugar. 

1.  All  food  carbohydrates  are  starches 
or  sugars. 

2.  Starch  is  made  up  of  simple  sugar 

3.  All  food  carbohydrates  except  milk 
sugar  are  formed  in  the  vegetable 

II.  Digestion  of  Starch. 

1.  Most  starch-containing  foods 
should  be  well-cooked. 

2.  In  digestion  starch  is  changed  into 
component  simple  sugars. 

3.  Using  sugar  with  starchy  food  is 
dietetic  duplication. 

4.  Duplicating  sugar  and  starchy  food 
is  a  dietetic  indiscretion. 

5.  The  liver  is  the  great  regulator  and 
storage  plant  of  sugar  in  the  body. 

6.  Carbohydrate  excess,  stored  as 
fatty  tissue  in  the  body. 

7.  Mixtures  of  starchy  and  fat  foods 
difficult  to  digest. 

8.  Danger  from  overeating  carbohy- 
drate food  especially  by  those  with 
limited  food  budget. 

III.  Sugar  as  Food. 

1.  Use  of  sugar  in  past  centuries. 

2.  Ease  of  manufacture  has  increased 

3.  Most  highly  concentrated  food 
eaten  by  man. 

4.  Over-use  in  the  United  States. 

5.  As  used  today  sugar  is  not  a  natural 
but  a  manufactured  product. 

IV.  Advantages  of  Sugar  as  Food. 

1.  An  energy  food  needed  by  the  body 
in  very  small  amount  as  a  simple 
sugar    (glucose). 

2.  Blood  contains  one  part  glucose  to 
one  thousand. 

3.  As  nature  prepares  it,  often  mixed 
with  valuable  minerals. 

4.  Used  in  natural  state  by  Nature 
people;  not  so  in  modern  manu- 

5.  Cheap,  clean,  easy  to  handle  and 

V.  Disadvantages  of  Sugar  as  Food. 

1.  Too  concentrated;  causes  an  ac- 
quired taste. 

2.  Contains  no  building  food  (protein) 
mineral  matter  or  vitamins. 

3.  Is  distinctly  habit-forming. 

4.  Many  dangers  from  over  use: 

a.  Irritates  the  lining  of  alimentary 

b.  Tends  to  cause  gas   formation; 

c.  Deadens  the  appetite  for  other 
much  needed  food. 

5.  If  used  too  freely  the  liver  and 
kidneys  overworked  and  affected 

6.  Candy  as  human  food — its  proper 
use  and   dangers. 

VI.  The  Pancreas  in  Sugar  Digestion. 

1.  Active  principle  is  insulin. 

2.  Necessary  to  enable  tissues  to  burn 
(oxidize)   sugar  brought  by  blood. 

3.  When  over-worked,'  diabetes  may 

4.  Great  increase  of  diabetes  in  the 
United  States. 

VII.  Wisdom    in    Use    of    Carbohydrate 

1.  The  Word  of  Wisdom  points  the 

2.  Use  of  natural  foods. 

Questions,  Problems,  Projects 

1.  Explain  how  and  why  starches  and 
sugar  duplicate  each  other  in  human  di- 

2.  Review  the  manufacture  and  use  of 
sugar  as  human  food. 

3.  Refer  to  the  statement  made  by  Mc- 
Collum  on  page  180  of  the  text.  Discuss 

4.  Why  is  fat  not  always  a  sign  of 
health?  What  warning  do  you  receive 
from  the  picture  on  page  178? 

5.  Enumerate  the  disadvantages  and 
dangers  in  the  over-use  of  carbohydrate 
foods,  especially  those  of  sugar.  How  may 
these  findings  of  science  improve  the  dietary 
of  your  family  and  others? 

6.  How  and  why  should  the  "soda  foun- 
tain habit"  be  controlled?  What  rule 
should  be  applied  to  everyone,  to  children 
especially,  in  the  use  of  candy  as  food? 

7.  How  may  wisdom  be  shown  in  the 
use  of  carbohydrate  food.  Discuss,  and 
apply  to  the  diet  of  yourself  and  friends. 


"Wheat  For  Man" 
(First  Part  of  Chapter  13) 

I.  Wheat  as  Human  Food. 

1.  Contains  all  necessary  food  prin- 
ciples but  not  in  needed  propor- 

2.  May  well  be  termed  "a  staff  of 

3.  Use  in  past  centuries. 

4.  Use  today. 

II.  Structure  and  Composition:     See  il- 
lustration on  page  186. 

1.  Bran,  germ  and  endosperm. 

2.  Bran  and  germ  rich  in  minerals 
and  vitamins. 

3.  Inner  portion  or  endosperm  con- 
tains starch  and  glutin. 

4.  Most  valuable  portions — the  bran 
and  germ — often  discarded  and  fed 
to  animals. 

5.  Comparison  between  composition 
of  whole  wheat,  white  flour  and 

III.  The  Milling  of  Wheat. 

1.  For  use  as  breakfast  foods  and 

2.  Reasons  for  the  refining  process. 

3.  Results  of  the  refining  process. 

4.  Advantages  and  disadvantages  of 
world-wide  shipping  facilities. 

IV.  White  Bread  as  Food. 

1.  Advantages. 

2.  Contains  practically  no  vitamins 
and  little  of  food  minerals. 

3.  Opinions  as  to  its  value  vary, 
though  its  use  is  almost  universal. 

4.  Nutrition  experts  agree  that  if  used 
vitamins,  minerals  and  roughage 
must  be  supplied  from  some  other 

5.  The  dangers  from  such  advice. 
(See  p.  189.) 

V.  Use  of  hot  breads. 

1.  Often  used  to  excess. 

2.  Combinations  with  fat  or  sugar, 
especially  if  underdone,  difficult  of 

3.  Dr.  Rose's  advice. 

4.  Wisdom  and  knowledge  needed. 

Questions,  Problems,  Projects 

1.  Why  is  wheat  a  good  food  for  man? 
Describe  the  composition  and  structure  of 
the  wheat  kernel. 

2.  Give  a  survey  of  the  use  of  wheat  as 
human  food — in  ancient  times  and  today. 

3.  Analyze  the  table  showing  wheat  con- 
tent found  on  page  187. 

4.  What  is  your  opinion  regarding  the 
present  practice  of  milling  wheat  into  the 
high  patent  flour?  What  are  the  ad- 
vantages  and  disadvantages   thereof? 

5.  How  may  white  bread  become  a 
"broken  staff  of  life"?  What  precautions 
must  be  taken  to  prevent  it? 

6.  Why  is  flour  bleached?  Describe  the 
process  and  the  bleaching  agent  used  in 
your  nearest  mill.  What  is  your  opinion 
of  this  practice? 

7.  If  possible,  visit  your  nearest  flour  mill 
and  give  a  report  of  your  findings. 


Made  by  The  First  Council  of  the  Seventy  to  The  Council  of  the   Twelve  Apostles 

For  the  Month  of  April,  1938 

Missionary   Activities                                                  April  April 

1938  1937 

1.  Evenings   or   part  days   spent   in   missionary   work   7,406  5,528 

2.  Hours  spent   in   missionary  work  16,834  12,161 

3.  Number    of    calls    made    ._ 12,653  9,387 

4.  Number   of   first   invitations    in 4,360  3,257 

5.  Number    of    revisits    4,499  2,677 

6.  Number    of    Gospel    conversations    _ 13,149  9,070 

7.  Number  of  standard  Church  works  distributed   (Does  not  include  Books  of  Mormon 

reported    under    Item    No.     10)     _ 357  568 

8.  Number  of  other  books  distributed 408  353 

9.  Number  of  tracts  and  pamphlets   distributed   14,592  10,027 

10.  Copies  of  Book  of  Mormon  actually  sold _ 241  89 

11.  Number  of  hall  meetings  held  by  missionaries  232  212 

12.  Number  of   cottage   meetings   held   by   missionaries 685  561 

13.  Number  of  missionaries  who  attended  cottage  and  hall  meetings 2,132  1,978 

14.  Number  of  investigators  present  at  cottage  and  hall  meetings 2,737  1,729 

15.  Number  of  baptisms  as   a   result  of  missionary  work 151  96 

(1)  Of  people  over   15  years  of  age  73 

(2)  Of  people  under   15  years  of  age: 

a.  Both  of  whose  parents  are  members  37 

b.  Others   under    15   years   of   age   22 

Classification   not   designated   19 

16.  Number    of    inactive   members    of    Church    brought    into    activity    through    stake    missionary 

service    during    the    month    329  329 

Additional  Information 

Number  of  stakes  in  the  Church  122  118 

Number  of  stake  missions  organized  118  112 

Missionaries  Actively   Engaged 

Number  of   stakes  reporting _ _ 102  83 

Number   of    districts    - 368  267 

Elders    236  200 

Seventies 1,337  887 

High     Priests     _ „ 275  166 

Women    315  1 94 

Total    2 , 1 89  1 ,447 

Special  Items  op    Interest 

Visits  in  connection  with  stake  missionary  work  were  made  by  members  of  the  First  Council  of  the  Seventy 
to    19   stakes  during   the   month   of   April. 

Interviews  were  held  in  the  office  of  the  First  Council  with  16  stake  presidents  and  stake  mission 
presidents  during  the  month  of  April. 



U)wixL  Jswudwiitk  TYbiAikjaxjsL  #&l  (hiqiud,  7938 


As  Latter-day  Saints  a  great  responsibility  has  come  to  us.  As  mem- 
**  bers  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  we  have  assumed  the  responsibility 
of  living  clean,  virtuous  lives,  of  discharging  certain  duties  in  the  Church, 
of  sharing  with  our  brethren  and  sisters  who  are  not  so  fortunate  as  our- 
selves and  of  making  our  actions  in  every  way  possible  reflect  the  teachings 
of  the  Gospel. 

Above  all,  we  have  the  great  responsibility  of  so  conducting  our  daily 
lives  that  our  actions  will  reflect  credit  to  the  Church,  that  the  truths  of 
Mormonism  shall  be  demonstrated,  and  that  others  may  see  our  good  works 
and  "glorify  our  Father  which  is  in  Heaven." 

In  a  world  such  as  that  in  which  we  live  today,  this  is  not  an  easy  task. 
We  must  be  on  guard  every  moment  against  snares  and  temptations.  The 
ways  of  the  world  seem  pleasant  and  attractive.  They  are  much  easier  to 
follow  than  the  ways  of  the  Lord.  But  Latter-day  Saints  have  a  responsi- 
bility that  does  not  rest  upon  other  people.  To  us  much  has  been  given; 
therefore  much  is  expected.  We  have  been  blessed  abundantly  and  we 
shall  be  blessed  even  more  abundantly  if  we  follow  the  teachings  of  the 
Gospel  and  reflect  credit  upon  the  Church  to  which  we  belong. 

Latter-day  Saints  are  expected  to  be  exemplary  citizens.  All  that  is 
stated  or  implied  in  the  Articles  of  Faith,  in  the  Ten  Commandments,  in 
the  Word  of  Wisdom,  it  is  our  obligation  to  observe  to  the  utmost  of  our 
ability.  And  that  obligation,  because  of  conditions  which  now  exist  in  the 
world,  is  more  definite  and  more  serious  than  ever  before.  The  eyes  of  the 
world  are  upon  us.  Our  beliefs  and  principles  are  being  brought  to  the 
attention  of  the  people  of  the  world  as  never  before.  Our  great  responsi- 
bility is  to  make  our  practices  square  with  the  principles  which  the  world 
knows  now,  more  than  ever  before,  the  Church  teaches. 


Tn  The  Improvement  Era  for  April  in 
■"■  the  article  entitled  "The  Teacher 
Watches  Over  the  Church  Always," 
by  President  David  O.  McKay,  two 
paragraphs  are  again  called  to  the  at- 
tention of  Ward  Teachers.  They  read 
as  follows: 

To  give  help,  encouragement,  and  in- 
spiration to  every  individual  is  the  great 
responsibility  and  privilege  of  Ward  Teach- 

I  believe  that  in  Ward  Teaching  there 
is  one  of  the  greatest  opportunities  in  all 
the  world  to  awaken  in  those  who  are 
negligent,  discouraged,  down-hearted,  and 
sad,  renewed  life  and  a  desire  to  re-enter 
into  activity  in  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ. 
By  such  activity  they  will  be  led  back  into 
the  spiritual  atmosphere  which  will  lift  their 
souls  and  give  them  power  to  overcome 
weaknesses  which  are  now  shackling  them. 

Undoubtedly  the  revelations  given  to 
us  in  this  dispensation  were  given  in  a 
full  realization  of  the  conditions  which 
would  confront  the  Church  in  these 
times.  Undoubtedly  it  was  foreseen 
that  the  time  would  come  when  ex- 
ternal influences  would  lead  many  of 
our  people  away  from  spirituality  and 
Church  activity  and  into  paths  of  in- 
difference if  not  actual  sin. 


No  movement  in  the  Church  is  more 
fundamental  to  the  welfare,  unity,  and 
progress  of  the  Church  than  the  plan 
of  monthly  visits  to  the  homes  of  the 
Saints.  No  movement  carries  with  it  a 
more  definite  opportunity  to  exercise 
the  power  and  influence  of  the  Priest- 

Therefore,  when  a  Teacher  is  called 
and  assigned  to  a  district  as  a  Ward 
Teacher  he  is  called  to  a  definite  mis- 
sion as  truly  as  though  he  were  asked 
to  leave  his  home  and  family  and  labor 
in  another  city  or  another  country. 

When  such  a  call  comes  there  comes 
with  it  the  responsibility  to  look  after 
the  individual  welfare  of  every  member 
residing  within  that  district.  To  look 
after  one's  welfare,  to  be  responsible 
as  a  shepherd  is  responsible  for  his 
sheep,  to  see  that  there  is  no  iniquity, 
neither  hardness  with  each  other, 
neither  lying,  nor  backbiting,  nor  evil- 
speaking  and  to  see  that  the  people 
meet  together  often  and  that  all  mem- 
bers do  their  duty  is  a  serious  and  sa- 
cred responsibility. 

It  is  important — yes,  obligatory- — that 
every  Teacher  visit  the  homes  of  his 
district  each  month.  But  that  alone  is 
not  enough.  In  addition  the  people  are 
to  be  taught  the  Gospel — that  is  doubt- 
less the  reason  these  monthly  visitors 
are    called    "Teachers."      A    monthly 

message,  of  concern  to  every  member 
of  the  Church  is  prepared  and  provided 
for  every  Teacher  in  the  Church.  To 
read  this  message  in  the  home  or  to 
leave  it  for  the  members  to  read  (this 
plan  has  now  been  definitely  discon- 
tinued) is  not  enough. 

Actually  to  teach  there  must  first  be 
learning  and  second  preparation.  It 
is  the  responsibility  of  the  Ward 
Teacher  to  study  the  Monthly  Message 
and  then  from  its  suggestions  prepare 
his  own  message  to  deliver  to  the 
Saints.  To  read  the  printed  message 
is  a  poor  substitute  for  real  teaching. 

The  messages  are  distributed  in  ample 
time  for  distribution  nearly  a  month  be- 
fore they  are  to  be  used.  They  should 
be  studied  thoroughly  and  then  no  mat- 
ter how  humble  the  message  may  be, 
it  should  become  and  be  given  as  the 
Teacher's  own  message. 

In  connection  with  the  message,  the 
welfare  of  the  family  should  be  in- 
quired into.  They  should  be  encour- 
aged in  Church  activity  to  do  their 
duty;  they  should  be  cheered  and  com- 
forted in  time  of  sorrow  and  affliction. 
The  teacher  watches  over  the  Church 
(and  to  the  individual  teacher  that 
means  the  members  of  his  district)  al- 

That  is  the  great  responsibility  of 
the  Teacher  in  addition  to  his  great 
responsibility  as  a  member  of  the 
Church  himself  as  suggested  in  the 
Ward  Teacher's  Message  for  August, 
printed  on  this  page. 


f\F  the  total  of  46,275  members  of 
^^  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  between 
the  ages  of  12  and  20,  9,305  are  now 
regularly  engaged  in  Ward  Teaching. 
While  this  figure  is  slightly  lower  than 
the  high  mark  reached  in  1936,  it  is 
well  above  the  five-year  average  and 
represents  slightly  more  than  20%  of 
all  the  Aaronic  Priesthood  in  regular 

As  Deacons  represent  approximately 
40%  of  the  total  group,  the  percentage 
of  Priests  and  Teachers  engaged  in 
Ward  Teaching  is  approximately  32%. 

Stakes  with  the  highest  number  of 
Aaronic  Priesthood  quorum  members 
acting  as  Ward  Teachers  are: 

Ogden  238 

Cottonwood    ....208 

Rexburg 187 

Hyrum    172 

Salt  Lake 160 

Logan 159 

Smithfield    159 

Pioneer   155 

Box  Elder 146 

Pocatello  143 

No.  Weber .140 

Cache    139 

Weber  136 

Bear  River. 131 

From  several  stakes  come  reports  of 

excellent  success   from  the  efforts   of 

(Concluded  on  page  428) 


'V'0111*  first  duty  in  life  is  toward  your 
■*■     afterself.  So  live  that  your  after- 
self — the  man  you  ought  to  be — may 
in  his  time  be  possible  and  actual. 

Far  away  in  the  years,  he  is  waiting 
his  turn.  His  body,  his  brain,  his  soul 
are  in  your  hands.  He  cannot  help 
himself.  What  will  you  leave  for  him? 

Will  it  be  a  brain  unspoiled  by  lust 
or  dissipation,  a  mind  trained  to  think 
and  act,  a  nervous  system  true  as  a 
dial  in  its  response  to  the  truth  about 

Will  you,  boy,  let  him  come  as  a 
man  among  men  in  his  time?  Or  will 
you  throw  away  his  inheritance  be- 
fore he  has  had  a  chance  to  touch  it? 

Will  you  turn  over  to  him  a  brain 
distorted,  a  mind  diseased,  a  will  un- 
trained, a  spinal  cord  grown  through 
and  through  with  the  devil  grass  of 
that  vile  harvest  we  call  wild  oats? 

This  is  your  problem  in  life — the 
problem  of  more  importance  to  you 
than  any  or  all  others.  How  will  you 
meet  it,  as  a  man  or  as  a  fool? 

When  you  answer  this,  we  shall 
know  what  use  the  world  can  make 
of  you. —  (By  the  late  David  Starr 
Jordan,  o[  Stanford  University.) 


T~\eacons  of  the  Sandy  Second  Ward 
were  given  double  honor  recently, 
when  a  banquet  was  held  in  their  honor 
at  the  home  of  Dr.  C.  C.  Jensen,  at 
which  they  were  given  the  honor  and 
privilege  of  shaking  hands  with  a  man 
who,  in  his  early  life,  had  had  the  priv- 
ilege of  shaking  hands  with  President 
Abraham  Lincoln.  The  guest  was  John 
Braxton  Sanders  of  Ashton,  Idaho,  a 
former  bishop  and  High  Councillor  in 
the  Lost  River  Stake. 

Elder  Sanders  grew  to  young  man-' 
hood  near  Springfield,  Illinois,  home  of 
President  Lincoln,  and  while  a  boy  of 
14,  he  had  the  honor  of  shaking  hands 
with  the  President.  He  related  in- 
stances in  his  early  life  as  a  part  of  the 


In  the  picture  reading  from  left  to  right,  back 
row:  Dr.  C.  C.  Jensen,  member  of  the  East  Jordan 
Stake  High  Council;  David  J.  Borg,  First  Counselor  in 
the  Sandy  Second  Ward  Bishopric;  Cleleo  L.  Jensen, 
President  Deacons'  Quorum;  Stanley  A.  Rasmussen, 
Bishop;  Jay  Martineau;  Reed  Sanderson,  Second 
Counselor.    Richard   Webb. 

Second  row:  Robert  Denny,  Keith  Gillen,  Brother 
Sanders,    Richard   Dalton. 

Front  row:  Wayne  Sundberg,  Jack  Borg,  and 
Blaine  Anderson.  Ruel  McPhie,  Dr.  Jensen's  grand- 
son, sitting  on  Mr.  Sanders'  lap.  Two  members  of 
the  quorum  were  excused:  Oral  Birch  and  Jack 
Wennerstrom;  two  were  in  quarantine:  Udell  Webster 
and  Gordon  Green.  Gordon  Ohlson,  quorum  super- 
visor, was  not  present. 


program,  and  urged  the  Deacons  to  be 
honest  in  all  their  dealings  and  to  follow 
the  teaching  and  example  of  the  great 


"^T  early  400  persons  attended  the  an- 
•^  nual  banquet  and  rally  of  the 
Aaronic  Priesthood  of  Maricopa  Stake 
held  recently  at  Mezona  Hall  in  Mesa. 
Of  the  group  315  members  of  Aaronic 
Priesthood  quorums  were  guests  of  the 
stake  presidency,  the  High  Council,  and 
the  Aaronic  Priesthood  committees, 
with  the  Relief  Society  preparing  and 
serving  the  banquet. 

Elder  Lorenzo  Wright,  chairman  of 
the  stake  Aaronic  Priesthood  commit- 
tee (since  made  president  of  the  stake 
which  was  recently  divided)  was 
master  of  ceremonies.  The  program 
was  provided  by  quorum  members. 
The  attendance  prize  went  to  Gilbert 
Ward  with  85%  present.  The  presen- 
tation was  made  by  Elder  Frank  T. 
Pomeroy.  President  J.  R.  Price,  then 
stake  president,  but  now  president  of 
the  new  Phoenix  Stake,  addressed  the 
assembly,  encouraging  all  members  to 
continue  in  good  works. 


A  letter  from  President  Charles  C. 
"^  Heaton  of  Kanab  Stake  indicates 
encouraging  progress  in  Adult  Aaronic 
Priesthood  work.  In  two  wards,  which 
have  joined  in  this  project,  a  class  of 
29  members  is  making  rapid  strides. 
President  Heaton  writes:  "It  is  mar- 
velous to  see  the  attitude  of  these  men 
and  the  seeming  desire  they  have  to 
learn  and  become  useful  in  the  wards 
in  which  they  live,  and  the  splendid 
attendance  at  the  weekly  meetings. 
Our  missionaries  that  have  caught  the 
spirit  of  their  calling  are  doing  a  very 
fine  work  with  this  group." 


"P\eacons  of  Gilmer  Park  Ward  in 
Bonneville  Stake  have  made  their 
contribution  toward  the  preparation  for 
building  a  new  chapel  by  devoting  a  day 
to  a  general  clean-up  of  the  newly-ac- 
quired site  for  the  ward  building.  The 
Deacons  were  carefully  organized  and 
ward  officers  report  that  the  work  as- 
signed to  them  was  well  done. 

THE    IMPROVEMENT    ERA,    JULY,    1938 


(Concluded  from  page  426) 

these  young  brethren  in  visiting  the 
homes  of  the  Saints. 


^T  early  a  thousand  adult  members  of 
the  Aaronic  Priesthood  are  now 
acting  as  Ward  Teachers,  it  is  indi- 
cated in  the  report  for  the  first  quarter 
of  1938,  just  issued  by  the  Presiding 
Bishopric.  The  exact  number  is  993. 
In  view  of  the  lack  of  information  re- 
garding   adult    activity    from    several 

stakes  it  is  doubtless  fair  to  assume 
that  probably  more  than  a  thousand 
are  now  engaged  in  Ward  Teaching 

Leading  stakes  of  the  Church  in  num- 
ber of  adults  acting  as  Ward  Teachers 
headed  by  Salt  Lake  Stake,  pioneers  in 
the  Adult  Aaronic  Priesthood  move- 
ment, are: 

Salt  Lake  44 

Hyrum    41 

Duchesne 39 

Oquirrh  33 

Pioneer 25 

Liberty    24 

Parowan  23 

Logan    22 

St.  Johns  21 

Lyman  20 


A  Monthly  Presentation  of  Pertinent  Information  Regarding  the 

Lord's  Law  of  Health 


Reprinted  from  Allied  Youth 
and  newspaper  reports. 

'"Inhere  is  a  robbery  every  10  min- 
utes,  a  burglary  every  2  minutes, 
a  larceny  every  44  seconds,  and  a  case 
of  automobile  theft  every  2^  minutes. 
We  have  heard  from  self-styled  ex- 
perts on  criminology  that  crime  is  defi- 
nitely on  the  decrease.  Unfortunately, 
crime  is  not  decreasing  and  criminals 
are  not  reforming."  In  an  increasing 
number  of  these  crimes,  alcohol  is 
identified  as  a  factor. 

Without  attempting  to  record  or  an- 
alyze crime  statistics,  it  can  be  said 
that  offenses,  from  breaking  windows 
to  murder,  can  and  have  been  all  too 
frequently  traced  to  drinking;  that  as 
the  consumption  of  liquor  increases,  as 
the  bars  are  lowered,  there  is  more  and 
more  crime  traceable  to  liquor. 

A  boy  of  17  bought  19  beers  and 
two  whiskies  in  a  tavern — it  is  against 
the  law  to  sell  liquor  to  minors — and 
after  paying  his  bill  went  upstairs  and 
held  up  a  lodger.  He  was  sent  to  prison. 
Action  is  being  taken  against  the  tav- 

N.  Y.,  Dr.  James  H.  Wall  found  that 
71  had  one  or  more  relatives  who  used 
alcohol  to  excess,  and  27  had  alco- 
holic fathers.  The  average  age  for  be- 
ginning to  drink  was  18,  but  many  be- 
gan earlier. 

Youth  must  remember,  in  reading  the 
subtly  appealing  advertisements  in 
magazines,  on  billboards,  and  in  color- 
ful electric  signs,  that  right  there  is 
much  of  the  cause  of  crime.  They 
must  remember  that  no  matter  how 
beautiful  and  appealing  this  advertising 
is,  and  no  matter  how  much  attention 
is  diverted  to  the  ineffectiveness  and 
concurrent  lawbreaking  of  the  prohi- 
bition amendment,  liquor  itself,  when 
drunk— and  that  is  its  only  purpose — 
is  a  criminal,  that  it  cannot  be  sep- 
arated from  the  responsibility  for  crime. 

The  Potawatomi  Indians  voted  by 
a  big  majority  against  permitting  the 
sale  of  3.2  beer  on  their  reservation  the 
other  day.  "Beer  will  make  trouble 
for  the  Indians,"  said  a  brave. 

This  advertisement  recently  appear- 
ed in  a  newspaper:  "Wanted — a  bar- 
tender.    Must  be  total  abstainer." 

Murders  committed  under  the  in- 
fluence of  liquor  are  much  too  com- 
mon, officials  complain.  One  judge  re- 
cently in  commenting  on  such  a  case 
pointed  out  that  after  all  it  wasn't  the 
man — who  was  so  befuddled  by  liquor 
that  he  didn't  know  right  from  wrong, 
didn't  know  what  he  was  going  to  do — 
but  the  liquor  itself,  which  committed 
the  murder. 

In  a  study  of  100  male  alcoholics  at 
Bloomingdale  Hospital,  White  Plains, 

Beer  sales  increased  16,000  barrels  in 
January  1938,  over  January  1937.  The 
total  number  of  barrels  sold  was 

A  standard  test  for  intoxicated 
drivers  that  will  be  accepted  by  the 
courts  and  insure  convictions  if  guilty 
is  urged  by  Traffic  Director  William  A. 
Van  Duzer,  of  the  District  of  Colum- 

Records  of  the  District  of  Columbia 
police  department  show  19,091  arrests 
for  drunkenness  for  the  fiscal  year  end- 
ing March  1,  1938.  This  is  an  average 
of  52  per  day. 

The  Church  Moves  On 

[Continued  from  page  415) 


A  team  of  Mormon  missionaries,  the 
*"*■  Catford  Saints,  won  the  National 
Basketball  Championship  of  Great 
Britain,  at  the  Empire  Pool  and  Sports 
Arena,  Wembley,  April  19th,  and  were 
awarded  the  British  National  Basketball 
trophy,  and  special  suits,  displaying 
the  Union  Jack,  and  individual  mem- 

The  members  of  the  winning  team 
were  Elders  S.  Bruce  Hanks,  Marvin 
J.  Ashton,  Parry  D.  Sorensen,  Edmund 
M.  Evans,  DeLos  A.  Rowe,  Owen  P. 
Gladwell,  Paul  Howells,  W.  Burt  Bux- 
ton, and  Glenn  H.  Grimmett. 

A  basketball  team,  representing  Eng- 
land, and  composed  of  nine  American 
Mormon  missionaries,  wearing  the  Brit- 
ish Union  Jack,  won  the  International 
Basketball  Tournament  (Grand  Tour- 
noi  International  de  Basketball)  at 
Lille,  France,  during  the  week  of 
May  6. 

Sunday,  April  24,  1938. 

Heber  C.  Kimball  was  sustained  as 
bishop  of  the  Eighteenth  Ward,  En- 
sign Stake. 

Pres.  Heber  J.  Grant  dedicated  the 
chapel  in  the  Omaha  Branch  of  the 
Western  States  Mission. 

The  Moon  Lake  Stake  was  organized 
with  Edwin  L.  Murphy  as  president. 

The  Duchesne  Stake  was  reorgan- 
ized with  Heber  Moon  as  president. 

The  Price  Ward,  Carbon  Stake, 
was  divided.  O.  F.  Guymon  was 
sustained  as  bishop  of  Price  First 
Ward  and  Don  Clayton  was  sustained 
as  bishop  of  Price  Second  Ward. 

Sunday,  May  1,  1938. 

Pres.  Heber  J.  Grant  was  the  prin- 
cipal speaker  at  the  opening  of  the  old 
West  Jordan  meetinghouse  which  has 
been  renovated  and  will  be  used  as  a 
hall  of  relics  by  the  Archibald  Gardner 
Camp  of  the  Daughters  of  Utah  Pio- 

Sunday,  May  8,  1938. 

The  Sixth-Seventh  Ward,  Pioneer 
Stake,  was  reorganized  with  H.  Gilbert 
Barton  as  bishop. 

James  Vernon  Graves  was  sustained 
as  president  of  the  Mexicans  of  Salt 
Lake  City. 

Sunday,  May  15,  1938. 

The  Wasatch  Ward,  Highland 
Stake,  was  reorganized  with  Rulon  J. 
Sperry  as  bishop. 

Sunday,  May  22,  1938. 

Edwin  Q.  Cannon  was  sustained  as 
bishop  of  the  Twentieth  Ward,  Ensign 

(Concluded  on  page  435) 



President  and   Treasurer. 

Vice  President. 

Secretary    and    Librarian. 



Assistant  Secretary. 

Assistant  Treasurer  and 
Superintendent  of    Research    Bureau 

Assistant  Librarian. 


At  a  recent  Genealogical  meeting 
*"*  held  in  the  Second  Ward,  Liberty 
Stake,  the  following  testimony  about 
home  teaching  was  given  by  Mrs.  Re- 
becca B..  Hansen.  Inasmuch  as  the 
Genealogical  organizations  are  empha- 
sizing home  teaching  at  this  time,  this 
story  should  be  an  inspiration  to  our 
many  committee  members.  Here  is 
Sister  Hansen's  story  as  she  told  it: 

When  I  was  asked  to  become  ward 
supervisor  of  the  home  teaching  department 
in  the  Genealogical  organization  I  was  a 
teacher  in  the  seminary  and  a  Relief  Society 
supervisor  of  teachers.  I  just  didn't  know 
how  to  take  up  this  Genealogical  work. 
I  thought  I  didn't  like  Genealogical  work 
as  well  as  I  did  that  of  the  Relief  Society 
and  seminary  teaching. 

After  making  this  calling  a  matter  of 
prayer  and  deep  consideration  I  attended 
a  Union  meeting  of  the  Genealogical  organ- 
ization. In  that  meeting  one  of  the  speak- 
ers said:  "It  isn't  those  things  that  you  like 
to  do  that  you  should  do,  but  those  things 
that  you  are  called  upon  to  do."  I  took 
•this  statement  as  an  answer  to  my  calling 
to  the  Genealogical  work,  and  was  set  apart 
as  ward  supervisor. 

Sister  Orodine  Bachman,  who  was  super- 
visor of  the  home  teaching  department, 
visited  me.  She  said:  "Sister  Hansen,  if 
you  take  this  calling  as  supervisor  of  home 
teaching  in  the  Genealogical  organization, 
1  promise  you  that  it  will  be  a  blessing  to 

you;  and  you  will  be  able  to  get  your  own 
genealogy,  and  make  your  Book  of  Fore- 
fathers; and  it  will  be  worth  more  to  you 
than  all  the  money  in  the  world."  She  also 
said,  "My  records  are  worth  thousands  of 
dollars  to  me." 

I  began  my  work  with  a  satisfaction  in 
my  heart  that  if  I  was  faithful  to  my  calling, 
Sister  Bachman's  promise  would  be  ful- 

My  mother  had  separated  from  my  own 
father,  taking  my  sister  Clarissa,  less  than 
four  years  old,  and  me,  about  two  years 
old,  to  make  our  home  with  our  grand- 
father. My  mother  married  again  and  I 
know  her  second  husband  as  my  father. 
When  I  was  nineteen  years  old,  I  was  told 
of  my  own  father  whom  mother  left  when 
I  was  too  young  to  remember.  In  1921  my 
mother  died.  My  sister  Clarissa  visited  the 
Church  Genealogical  Archive  and  found 
there  information  of  our  own  grandparents, 
and  our  father  and  mother.  After  that  time 
we  failed  to  find  any  more  information  on 
my  father's  line. 

Early  this  year,  when  doing  my  home 
teaching,  I  visited  a  home  in  one  of  the 
districts  and  left  a  pedigree  chart  and  family 
group  sheet.  I  promised  to  return  and  help 
the  lady  in  that  home  fill  out  the  charts  I 
gave  her.  I  called  again,  and  didn't  find 
anyone  home.  I  seemed  to  have  an  urge 
within  myself  to  try  to  keep  in  touch  with 
that  home  and  make  out  those  charts.  One 
day  I  decided  to  go  right  there  with  one  of 
my  teachers,  and  assist  in  making  out  the 
charts  that  I  had  left. 

I  found  the  lady  glad  to  see  us;  she 
welcomed  us  kindly.  I  said:  "I  have  come 
today  to  help  you  fill  out  the  charts  I  left 

here."  She  smiled  and  said,  "Perhaps  I 
should  show  you  what  records  I  have."  She 
began  to  show  me  her  Book  of  Forefathers 
and  to  tell  me  about  her  parents  and  their 
family  which  were  recorded  on  a  family 
group  sheet  in  her  book.  Her  parents  and 
family,  it  appeared,  had  lived  in  the  same 
town  where  my  sister  and  I  had  lived  when 
we  were  tiny  girls.  I  studied  the  record 
more  closely  and  was  surprised  when  I  saw 
my  grandmother's  name  on  her  family  group 
sheet.  I  asked:  "What  relation  is  this 
lady  to  you?"  She  answered  by  saying: 
"She  is  my  great-grandmother."  I  said: 
"She  is  my  grandmother!"  I  was  almost 
overcome  with  surprise  and  joy  and  I  felt 
very  weak.  I  composed  myself  and  ex- 
plained: "You  are  related  to  me.  At  last 
I  have  found  my  father's  people." 

She  turned  the  pages  of  her  Book  of 
Forefathers  and  I  saw  my  grandfather's  and 
grandmother's  names  with  those  of  their 
two  sons,  my  father  and  his  brother,  and 
also  my  mother's  name  as  my  father's  wife. 
I  asked  her  what  she  knew  about  my  father 
and  she  said:  "His  wife  left  him,  taking 
her  two  little  girls  with  her;  she  had  decided 
to  live  in  her  father's  home  again."  I  said: 
"I  am  one  of  those  little  girls." 

She  also  told  me  that  my  grandfather  had 
died  while  crossing  the  plains;  my  grand- 
mother had  married  again;  and  a  baby  girl 
was  born  from  this  marriage.  That  baby 
girl  became  her  grandmother  and  my  fa- 
ther's half-sister,  thus  making  my  grand- 
mother her  great-grandmother. 

This  is  my  testimony,  that  when  we  are 
faithful  to  our  office  and  calling,  a  promise 
made  to  us  in  righteousness  will  be  ful- 

»  »  « 



By  T.  T.  Brumbaugh 
{Christian  Century;  April  20,  1938.) 

.  .  .  There  is  a  growing  concern  for 
religion  as  such  among  students  in  this 
country  and  in  administrative  circles  in 
tax-supported  and  other  schools;  there  is 
enhanced  appreciation  of  the  spiritual  in- 
terpretation of  existence  which  is  the  specific 
province  of  religion.  .  .  . 

Mormons  Show  the  Way 

...  In  realizing  the  importance  of  this, 
■educators  are  in  many  places  far  in  advance 
■of  religious  leaders.  In  one  state  university 
1  found  that  though  the  campus  authorities 
were  willing  to  grant  recognition  and  col- 
lege credit  for  courses  in  Bible,  church  his- 
tory and  religious  philosophy,  the  religious 
groups  could  not  get  together  on  a  united 

plan.  Great  was  the  surprise  therefore 
when  it  was  found  that  the  Latter-day 
Saints  had  met  the  university's  requirements 
in  a  basic  and  nonsectarian  presentation  of 
the  Bible  and  the  spiritual  interpretation  of 
life  and  were  starting  such  courses  of  in- 
struction under  competent  teachers  in  the 
local  Mormon  student  center  recently  erect- 
ed near  the  campus. 

Lest  this  be  taken  as  an  example  of  un- 
desirable Mormon  aggressiveness,  it  is  well 
to  add  parenthetically  that  there  is  no  re- 
ligious body  in  America  today  more  alert, 
progressive  and  cooperative  in  the  field  of 
religious  education  in  academic  centers 
than  the  Latter-day  Saints.  Whatever  may 
be  said  of  its  origin  and  tenets,  the  present 
leadership  of  the  church,  which  has  such  a 
large  following  in  our  western  states,  is 
awake  as  is  perhaps  no  other  denomination 
to  the  importance  of  paralleling  secular 
education  with  religious  instruction,  high  in 

intellectual  and  moral  content.  And  where- 
as some  bodies  have  felt  it  wise  to  create 
sectarian  schools  which  parallel  the  secular 
instruction  given  in  tax-supported  schools 
but  with  a  particular  religious  interpreta- 
tion, the  Mormons  have  seen  fit  in  recent 
years  almost  to  abandon  the  attempt  to 
impart  secular  education  and  have  concen- 
trated attention  on  giving  religious  instruc- 
tion in  seminaries  and  institutes  near  tax- 
supported  high  schools,  colleges  and  univer- 
sities. Such  "seminaries"  are  located  hard 
by  more  than  ninety  public  high  schools  in 
western  states,  and  their  "institutes"  pro- 
viding religious,  educational  and  social 
equipment  and  even  dormitory  accommoda- 
tions are  to  be  found  in  a  dozen  large  west- 
ern university  centers. 

Nor  are  these  to  be  considered  narrow, 
intolerant  and  exclusive  institutions.  Where 
high  school  credit  for  religious  instruction 
(Concluded  on  page  435) 


General    Superintendency 
Y.  M.  M.  I.  A. 





Executive  Secretary 

General  Offices  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A. 


General  Offices  Y.  W.  M.  I.  A. 



Send  all  Correspondence   to   Committees  Direct  to   General  Offices 

General  Presidency 
Y.  W.  M.  I.  A. 





Executive   Secretary 

HPhanks  for  your  fine  support  of  the 
A  June  Conference.  It  was  a  glorious 
event,  reaching  new  marks  in  many 
notable  respects.  Your  attendance, 
your  active  participation,  and  your  un- 
deviating  support  made  it  what  it  was 
intended  it  should  be — an  influence  for 
carrying  religion  into  life  and  building 
better  Latter-day  Saints. 

Many  of  the  messages  of  the  Con- 
ference will  appear  in  coming  issues  of 
the  Era. 


Ctake  Conference  Conventions  have 
*-*  already  started.  The  Executives 
and  General  Boards  of  M.  I.  A.  will  be 
out  to  visit  you  and  counsel  with  you. 
Your  "Study  Sheets"  and  other  instruc- 
tions should  now  be  in  your  hands.  We 
look  forward  to  these  times  of  meeting, 
planning,  and  "stock-taking,"  in  a  cause 
that  merits  the  best  efforts  of  men  and 
pay  life's  richest  rewards — the  cause 
of  human  service  in  an  eternal  plan. 


\\7e  hope  you'll  have  a  full  and  en- 
"  joyable  summer — and  we  hope 
that  the  M.  I.  A.  summer  program  will 
contribute  much  to  the  fellowship,  so- 
ciability, and  wholesome  development 
among  your  groups  and  communities. 


Sitting,  left  to  right,  Mission  President  William 
T.  Tew,  Elder  Bassett  T.  Wright.  Standing,  left  to 
right:  R.  Lamont  Stevens,  2nd  Bass;  Morris  Ander- 
son, 1st  Bass;  LaVerne  Blake,  quartet  instructor; 
Theras  Q.  Allred,  1st  Tenor;  Leon  Phelps,  2nd  Tenor. 
Elder  Delbert  K.  Schiess,  assistant  director,  was  not 
present  when  picture  was  taken.  (See  story,  page 

PAGE   431.) 

PAGE  432.) 

BRIGHAM   CITY.     (SEE  STORY,   PAGE  434.) 

STORY,    PAGE  432). 


THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 


By  Elder  Bassett  T.  Wright  M.  I.  A. 
and  Goodwill  Program  Director 

East  Central  States  Mission 

I  Tnder  the  leadership  of  President 
****  William  T.  Tew,  Jr.,  the  strength 
of  the  Mormon  position  has  gained 
rapidly  this  winter  in  the  East  Central 
States  Mission  as  the  result  of  an  ex- 
tensive and  intensive  Goodwill-Fellow- 
ship Campaign  of  a  mission-wide 
character  and  of  the  achievement  of 
more  and  better  Mutual  Improvement 
work.  The  mission  president,  whose 
philosophy  for  successful  missionary 
work  is  the  creation  of  goodwill,  rec- 
ognizes the  M.  I.  A.  as  the  key  posi- 
tion in  the  conservation  of  the  youth  of 

With  these  two  ideals  in  mind,  Good- 
will and  M.  I.  A.,  he  set  up  an  organi- 
zation last  September  to  carry  his  plans 
forward.  He  delegated  the  mission 
M.  I.  A.  director,  Elder  Bassett  T. 
Wright,  as  managing  director  of  the 
campaign.  Elder  Delbert  K.  Schiess 
was  chosen  assistant.  Four  mission- 
aries, Elder  R.  Lamont  Stevens,  Theras 
Q.  Allred,  Morris  H.  Anderson  and 
Leon  Phelps,  all  talented  singers,  were 
called  into  the  office  and  trained  as  a 
quartet  by  Sister  La  Verne  Blake,  a 
talented  member  of  the  Louisville 
Branch.  Plans  were  mapped  out  to 
cover  practically  every  branch  in  the 
mission  as  a  part  of  our  M.  I.  A.  and 
Goodwill  Program  and  Tour.  The 
purpose  of  the  tour  was  to  create  good- 
will, allay  prejudice,  enlighten  the  pub- 
lic regarding  the  Mormon  position, 
stimulate  members  and  leaders  in  the 
branches  of  the  Church,  lend  moral 
support  and  encouragement  to  mission- 
aries and  create  a  feeling  of  fellowship 
and  religious  tolerance  among  all  peo- 
ple. The  central  theme  of  our  activ- 
ities was  to  preach  the  Gospel  in  an 
attractive,  soul-gripping  manner  and  to 
do  all  we  could  to  open  up  new  ave- 
nues for  the  missionaries  to  follow  in 
their  efforts  to  convert  the  people  to 
the  restored  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ. 
Thousands  have  been  touched  during 
the  tour.  Missionaries  report  that  they 
are  received  more  favorably  and  with 
greater  respect. 

The  following  gives  the  number  of 
engagements  filled  during  the  tour  of 
the  past  five  months: 

Conference  sessions,  Branch  and  District  90 
M.  I.  A.  Conventions  and  various  ses- 
sions thereof  21 

Banquets,  M.  I.  A 12 

Colleges,  Universities,  Business  Colleges  40 

High  Schools 49 

Hall  Meetings,  Courthouses,  City 
Halls,  Open  air  meetings  with  em- 
ployees    30 

Radio  Broadcasts,  15  minute  programs....  75 
Clubs,  Civic,  Professional,  various  sim- 
ilar organizations 51 

Hotels,  appearances  before  guests 5 

Radio  Addresses,  President  William  T. 
Tew,  Jr 5 

Hospitals,  singing  and  speaking  to  pa- 
tients and  guests,  nurses  6 

Y.  M.  C.  A.  to  members  and  guests  with 

speaking  and  singing  3 

Other  churches,  singing  and  speaking....  11 

Miscellaneous,  state  conventions,  etc....  2 

The  newspapers  have  cooperated  in 
helping  us  accomplish  our  purpose.  Ap- 
proximately 85  news  articles  were 
published,  occupying  about  1 800  square 
inches  of  space,  free  of  cost. 

It  is  estimated  that  over  75,000  have 
heard  some  phase  of  Mormonism 
through  the  400  engagements  as  fol- 

Conference  Sessions 1 1,000 

M.  I.  A.  Conventions 2,750 

M.  I.  A.  Banquets  1,000 

Colleges,  Universities 17,750 

High  Schools 30,000 

Hall  meetings  3,850 

Clubs,  civic  organizations 4,700 

Hotels  500 

Hospitals - 1 ,000 

Y.  M.  C.  A 800 

Other  Churches 1,525 

Other  engagements 500 


The  cause  of  the  Youth  of  Zion  has 
been  promoted  through  M.  I.  A.  activ- 
ities. President  Tew  at  the  beginning 
of  the  M.  I.  A.  year  said:  "Save  the 
youth  of  Zion  and  you  save  the  Church. 
At  the  point  of  properly  educating  the 
youth  the  Church  succeeds  or  perishes. 
It  is  our  duty  to  see  that  the  young 
people  are  properly  taught  the  beauties 
of  the  Gospel  truths."  (See  photo, 
layout,  page  430.) 

will  be  developed  if  we  enlist  the  co- 
operation of  all  of  them  in  our  home 
beautification  program.  That  back 
yard  can  become  a  haven  of  beauty  and 
inspiration  if  we  put  forth  a  concerted 

Our  stake  and  ward  groups  are  now 
active  in  presenting  a  forum  or  educa- 
tional meet  in  each  community.  Let  us 
be  sure  to  join  these  groups  and  assist  in 
these  delightful  programs.  One  com- 
munity is  building  a  new  park,  and  a 
local  Adult  group  is  cooperating  to 
make  an  unusual  community  rose  gar- 
den in  it.  What  is  your  group  doing 
toward  our  Adult  beautification  pro- 
ject, which  is  developing  in  all  our 
communities?  In  addition  to  our  own 
Adult  class  program  let  us  join  in  the 
ward,  stake,  or  Church  programs  and 
feel  the  thrill  that  comes  with  the 
knowledge  that  we  are  actively  par- 
ticipating in  something  worthwhile. 

Axel  A.  Madsen  and  Grace  C.  Neslen,  chairmen; 
Richard  L.  Evans,  Dr.  L.  A.  Stevenson,  Aurelia 
Bennion,    Gladys  E.   Harbertson. 

/^Vne  month  of  summer  has  already 
*~*  passed  and  we  are  wondering  how 
many  Adults  have  been  enjoying  the 
outlined  summer  program.  What  fun 
it  will  be  to  begin  at  once  to  plan  that 
summer  picnic  with  our  families.  Watch 
the  joyous  enthusiasm  of  the  children  as 
they  assist  in  the  planning  of  such  an 
outing.  By  all  means  we  will  want  to 
spend  at  least  one  night  with  them  out 
under  the  stars,  where  the  heavens  will 
take  on  a  new  meaning  to  all  of  us.  In 
what  other  way  can  one  draw  so  close 
to  the  infinite?  We  parents  scarce 
realize  how  complimented  our  chil- 
dren and  their  friends  are  to  have  us 
participating  with  them  in  horseshoe, 
croquet,  softball,  and  many  of  the  other 
out-door  games,  which  can  be  played 
right  at  home.  While  we  are  together 
as  a  family  unit  let  us  see  how  joyous 
and  happy  we  can  really  make  the 
leisure  hours  of  this  summer  and  prove 
to  our  satisfaction  that  the  family  who 
plays  together  and  prays  together,  stays 

A  real  appreciation  for  the  beautiful 


"RTarch  26  marked  the  date  that  the 
*■**  Chicago  Stake  held  its  second  an- 
nual M  Men-Gleaner  banquet.  This 
stake  is  only  two  years  old,  but  to  have 
attended  the  banquet  would  have  con- 
vinced anyone  that  this  organization 
has  a  mighty  fine  group  of  young 
workers.  (See  photograph,  layout, 
page  430.) 

There  were  one  hundred  and  thirty 
persons  in  attendance.  The  banquet 
was  held  in  the  recreation  room  of  the 
University  Ward  Chapel,  located  on 
the  south  side  of  the  City  of  Chicago, 
adjoining  the  grounds  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Chicago. 

The  entire  dinner  was  prepared  by 
the  Relief  Society  sisters  of  this  ward, 
and  was  served  by  the  Bee-Hive  Girls. 


**rpHE  Knowledge  Seekers"  club  of 
•*■  Ogden,  Utah,  was  organized  in 
1936  by  a  group  of  young  people  for 
the  purpose  of:  First,  to  study  the  Gos- 
pel of  Jesus  Christ;  Second,  to  provide 
a  suitable  Sabbath  pursuit.  The  club 
meets  each  Sunday  evening  after  Sac- 
rament meeting,  in  the  homes  of  mem- 
bers. Names  marked  ( * )  are  the 
charter  members,  all  of  which  are  still 
active  members.  (See  photograph, 
layout,  page  430.) 

Reading  left  to  right,  front  row: 
West  Belnap*,  Don  West*,  Lawrence 
Saunders,  George  London*;  second 
row,  Eileen  Manning,  Mildred  West*, 
Maurine  West,  Virginia  Smith,  Betty 
Smeding,  Lois  Belnap,  Venette  Powell, 
Leuella  London;  third  row;  Herbert 
Harbertson*,  Sidney  Noble,  Jesse  Jen- 
sen*, Lillian  W.  Cheney*,  director 
of  classwork;  Glen  Wade*,  Robert 
Dickson,  visitor. 


THE     IMPROVEMENT    ERA,    JULY,     1938 


"Decently,  President  Merrill  D. 
**■  Clayson,  of  the  Southern  States 
Mission  and  ten  missionaries  and 
Saints,  sailed  to  Fort  Sumter  from 
Charleston.  Because  of  our  special 
purpose  of  going  there,  they  were  al- 
lowed the  opportunity  of  taking  pic- 
tures of  the  old  west  side,  where  77 
years  ago  a  cannon-ball  coming  from 
Ft.  Johnson,  a  Confederate  Fort,  start- 
ed the  great  Civil  War,  which  was  so 
definitely  and  exactly  prophesied  by 
Joseph  Smith  in  1832,  and  again  in 
1843,  recalling  the  afore-mentioned 

As  the  sun  set,  it  seemed  to  bring 
with  it  the  assurance  of  time,  which  is 
the  greatest  vindicator  of  Divine 

Here,  we  encircled  and  sang,  "Praise 
to  the  Man  who  Communed  with 
Jehovah."  It  was  the  first  Latter-day 
Saint  meeting  ever  to  be  held  upon  the 

The  President,  Merrill  D.  Clayson, 
read  the  prophecy  on  war  (Sec.  87 
and  Sec.  130:12,  13)— -the  causes 
and  results.  (See  picture,  layout,  page 

The  feeling  was  expressed  that  at 
some  future  day,  though  it  is  com- 
pletely surrounded  by  water,  this  spot 
will  become  the  "Southern  Shrine"  to 
the  Divinity  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  as 
other  monuments  are  in  the  east  and 
middle  west. 

Grouped  together  and  in  the  purple 
dusk  of  Southern  skies  we  sang  "We 
Thank  Thee,  O  God,  For  a  Prophet." 

This  little  account,  with  the  spirit  in 
which  the  meeting  was  held,  may  give 
you  an  idea  of  the  coming  importance 
of  this  spot  to  Church  members  in  the 
south.  — Merrill  J.  Wood. 


7V  N  attractive  program  and  pictures 
**■  submitted  by  Elder  John  H.  Taylor 
of  the  First  Council  of  Seventy,  and 
of  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  General  Board 
tell  the  story  of  a  Central  States  Mis- 
sion Convention  and  Music  Festival, 
held  May  28  and  29.  The  conference 
included  field  day  activities,  Gold  and 
Green  ball,  hobby  show,  music  festival, 
and  formal  meetings,  and  was  reported 
as  an  undertaking  of  high  merit.  ( See 
photo,  layout,  page  430.) 

■  ♦ 

By  Gilean  Douglas 

K  Moonlight  on  a  shingled  roof 

Is  a  simple  thing, 
But  far  too  rich  to  hem  the  robe 
Of  an  earthly  king. 

1.  260th  Quorum  of  Seventy  with  wives  at  a  chop  sui  dinner,  Honolulu,  Oahu  Stake,, 

2.  Cotton  Ball,  South  Georgia  District. 

3.  Oneida  Stake  Gleaners. 

4.  Long  Beach  Stake  M  Men  and  Gleaner  Girls  who  conducted  popular  summer 
dances  every  Tuesday  evening  for  the  M.  I.  A. 

5.  M  Men-Gleaner  Hallowe'en  party,  Taber,  Alberta,  Canada. 

6.  Priesthood  Gathering,  Queensland  District  Conference,  Australian  Mission. 


THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     1938 


TkwA,  f&  ihsL  7kw 


'"Phe  West  German  Mission  became  a 
distinct  entity  August  2,  1937.  Fall 
conferences  were  held,  but  no'  organiza- 
tion was  effected  until  December  2nd 
of  the  same  year,  when  President 
Philemon  M.  Kelly  and  Sister  Susan 
G.  Kelly  were  appointed  to  arrange  and 
direct  the  activities  of  that  mission. 

On  January  6,  1938,  President  and 
Sister  Kelly,  accompanied  by  Elders 
Sanford  M.  Bingham  and  Fred  Wm. 
Babbel,  arrived  in  Frankfurt  am  Main, 
where  they  immediately  began  to  select 
headquarters  so  the  work  of  that  mis- 
sion might  be  directed  with  as  little  in- 
convenience as  possible.  A  temporary 
office  was  secured,  making  possible  the 
adjustment  of  all  pressing  matters. 

After  much  prayerful  searching  and 
many  disappointments  a  site  was  found 
which  answered  our  every  need  and 
was  located  in  one  of  the  choicest  sec- 
tions of  all  Frankfurt.  Every  neces- 
sary renovation  was  immediately  be- 
gun and  we  moved  in  on  February 

By  day  these  headquarters  look  out 
upon  the  busy  river  traffic  o'f  the  beau- 
tiful Main.  Situated  directly  at  the 
intersection  of  the  Adolf  Hitler  bridge 
and  Schaumain-Kai — one  of  the  city's 
most  fashionable  residential  streets — 
one  may  see  the  activities  of  the  city 
without  the  least  disturbance.     Along 


of  the  West  German  Mission 

both  sides  of  the  Main  are  cool  in- 
viting parks  where  one  may  relax  and 
enjoy  the  beauty  of  the  scene.  Almost 
directly  across  the  river  is  the  unequaled 
and  picturesque  view  of  the  old  city  of 
Frankfurt.  Although  this  beauty  is  en- 
chanting during  the  daytime,  the  view 
at  night  of  the  entire  skyline  bathed  in 
brilliant  lights  is  unforgettable. 

The  home  itself  is  a  combination  of 
inviting  living  quarters  and  modernly 
convenient  business  offices.  Its  loca- 
tion on  the  ground  floor  makes  it  easily 
accessible  and  convenient  for  the  trans- 
action of  the  mission  business.  A  short 
ten-minute  walk  enables  one  to  reach 
the  railroad  station;  a  shorter  time  is 
required  to  reach  the  heart  o'f  the  city. 
Conveniently  situated  on  the  further 
side  of  the  river  is  the  branch  meeting- 

Although  we  entered  this  new  home 
on  February  12,  it  was  not  until  the 
seventeenth  of  that  month  that  each 
room  was  adequately  equipped  to  care 
for  the  needs  of  the  mission,  which  day, 
February  17,  we  have  termed  "Found- 
ers' Day"  for  West  German  Head- 

To   the    original    office    force   have 

been    added    four    capable    Elders    to 

(Concluded  on  page  435) 


Seated    left    to    right:      Elder    Doric    E.  Black, 

President  Philemon  M.   Kelly,  Sister  Susan  G.  Kelly. 

Second    row,    left   to    right:    Use   E.    Kraemer,  Elder 

Fred   Wm.    Babbel.     Standing,    left  to   right:  Elder 

Lloyd    C.    Pack,    Elder   Sanford    M.    Bingham,  Elder 
Sterling  R.  Ryser,  Elder  J.   Richard  Barnes. 

An  Electric 
Range  Makes 

Cooking  a 

Joy  Instead  of 

a  Job! 

Ask  any  housetvtfe 
who  cooks  electrically. 




8  LIGHT  CO. 



Write  or  call  for  Snapshot 


Phone  Wasatch  5292 

155  South  Main  Street 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 


(B)ixqhawL  *lfowiq. 


Counselor  in  the  Box  Elder  Stake 

Presidency  and  Chairman  of  the 

Memorial  Committee 

Tt  was  a  glorious  day,  that  19th  of 
A  August,  1877.  Large  crowds  of 
people  had  gathered  at  the  railroad 
station.  The  president  of  the  Church 
was  coming.  A  new  stake  in  Zion  was 
to  be  born. 

Children  lined  the  way  along  which 
the  procession  passed  from  the  station 
to  the  great  bowery  constructed  for 
the  assembling  of  the  Saints.  Flowers 
were  strewn  in  the  path  of  the  great 
pioneer  leader  as  he  journeyed  along 
to  the  meetingplace,  showing  the  great 
love,  esteem,  and  veneration  in  which 
he  was  held. 

It  was  the  last  visit  of  President 
Brigham  Young  to  the  city  which  bears 
his  name.  The  address  at  the  con- 
ference was  his  last  public  utterance 
before  he  passed  to  the  great  beyond 
just  ten  days  later.  The  stake  organ- 
ization perfected  that  day  was  the  last 
public  act  of  the  great  empire  builder 
and  spiritual  leader. 

Such  is  the  background  significance 
of  the  monument  erected  in  Brigham 
City,  Utah,  to  the  memory  of  Brigham 
Young.  Begun  as  an  M.  I.  A.  project, 
it  rapidly  developed  into  a  program 
financed  by  the  city,  the  county,  and 
the  people  of  the  ecclesiastical  wards 
in  the  stake  and  was  carried  on  by  a 
committee  representing  every  auxiliary 
organization  of  the  Church,  the  civic 
clubs,  the  patriotic  organizations,  and 
the  municipal  governments. 

Erected  on  the  plot  of  ground  on 
which  stood  the  old  bowery,  and  now 
officially  known  as  the  Brigham  Young 
Memorial  Park,  the  monument  stands 
boldly  out  as  the  central  attraction  in 
the  beautiful  landscaping  of  the  park. 
Its  shaft  of  Raymond  granite  stands 
ten  feet  nine  inches  high  with  basal 
dimensions  of  four  feet  six  inches  by 
eighteen  inches. 

On  the  back  of  the  monument  an 
inscription  gives  the  names  of  the  con- 
tributing organizations  and  on  the  front 
is  a  large  bronze  plaque,  the  gift  of 
the  Church  and  made  by  artist  J.  Leo 
Fairbanks.  Modeled  after  one  of  the 
last  and  one  of  the  best  portraits  of 
President  Young  it  shows  a  face,  hardy 
and  serious,  yet  life-like  and  full  of 
sympathy  and  kindness. 

Etchings  in  the  background  depict 
much  of  the  progress  of  the  Church  and 
the  State.  The  Indians  in  their  wig- 
wams are  shown  on  one  side  but  on 
the  other  is  shown  the  activities  of  the 
conquerors  of  the  desert.  The  log 
cabin  homes  of  the  pioneers  are  shown 
with  the  farmer  irrigating  his  lands 
and  caring  for  his  sheaves  of  wheat, 
the  covered  wagon  drawn  by  oxen 
arriving  from  the  east  and  its  occu- 
pants being  welcomed  by  the  ones  who 


1.  Righy  Stake  Gold  and  Green  Ball  held  at  River- 
side  Gardens. 

2.  Melody   Review   act    presented    by  Sandy   Third 
Ward,  East  Jordan  Stake. 

3.  Senior  Class,   Phoenix  Second  Ward. 

4.  Looking  up  from  the   base   of   Frozen  American 

5.  Mother  Rogers'  group,  Mothers'  and  Daughters' 

6.  Third  place  winner  in  the  M.  I.  A.  Basketball  in 
Argentina,  South   America. 

7.  Father   and    eight    sons;    Bundy   family    of    Mt. 
Trumbull,    Arizona. 

S.   Raft   River  Stake   Independence  Day  Celebration. 
9.  Winners    of  Soft    Ball    League,   Windsor   Ward, 

Timpanogos  Stake. 
10.  Bishop   R.  A.  Summers  of  Pasadena  Ward,  and 

Chiye  Terrazawa,   Mormon  missionary. 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     1938 

preceded  them.  And  then  one  sees 
the  magnificent  temple  of  God,  the 
unique  tabernacle,  the  beautiful  capitol, 
the  towering  business  edifices  and  the 
busy  industrial  plants,  the  whole 
backed  by  the  beauty  of  a  mountain 

Below  the  portrait  is  the  appropriate 
inscription : 

Erected  in  Honor  of  BRIGHAM 
YOUNG  In  Commemoration  Of  The  Out- 
standing Service  He  Rendered  The  Inter- 
Mountain  West  As  A  Patriot,  Pioneer, 
Colonizer,  Church  Leader  And  Statesman. 
On  This  Plot  of  Ground  Aug.  9th,  1877, 
He  Delivered  His  Last  Public  Address 
When  He  Organized  The  BOX  ELDER 

A  reflecting  pool  fronts  the  monument 
and  granite  seats  or  benches  build  the 
whole  into  one  great  unit.  Thus  Brig- 
ham  Young  is  honored  in  the  city  which 
bears  his  name  and  by  the  stake  whose 
organization  constituted  his  last  public 
activity.  It  is  an  important  step  among 
the  many  others  which  contribute  to 
the  fulfilment  of  the  prophecy  made 
by  Elder  George  Q.  Cannon  at  the 
funeral  services  of  his  leader  when  he 
said,  "The  time  will  come  when  the 
Latter-day  Saints  will  appreciate  him 
as  one  of  the  greatest  Prophets  that 
ever  lived." 

The  monument  was  dedicated  Aug- 
ust 19th,  1937,  the  sixtieth  anniversary 
of  the  organization  of  the  Box  Elder 
Stake,  by  President  Rudger  Clawson 
of  the  Council  of  the  Twelve.  It  was 
memorialized  at  that  time  by  an  in- 
spirational address  by  President  David 
O.  McKay  of  the  First  Presidency. 
Following  the  dedication  the  project 
was  completed  by  the  addition  of  the 
benches  and  planting  of  the  evergreens. 
On  June  1st,  1938,  the  one  hundred 
thirty-seventh  anniversary  of  the  birth 
of  Brigham  Young,  the  plaque  was 
placed  on  the  monument  and  appropri- 
ate exercises  held. 

News  of  the  New 
West  German  Mission 

(Concluded  Icom  page  428) 

aid  in  the  supervision  of  the  various 
mission  activities.  Elder  J.  Richard 
Barnes  has  been  appointed  to  serve 
as  mission  bookkeeper.  The  Sunday 
School  and  M.  I.  A.  activities  are  being 
directed  by  Elder  Lloyd  C.  Pack.  The 
progress  of  the  Priesthood  and  Gene- 
alogical organizations  is  insured  by  the 
combined  efforts  of  Elders  Doris  E. 
Black  and  Sterling  R.  Ryser.  As  from 
the  beginning,  Sister  Kelly  has  super- 
vised all  women's  organizations.  Now 
the  work  is  rapidly  progressing  and  the 
Saints  are  cooperating  most  willingly. 
It  is  from  these  new  headquarters  that 
President  M.  Douglas  Wood  and  his 
wife,  Evelyn  Wood,  will  direct  the 
West  German  Mission  activities. 


/"\NE  hundred  percent  enrollment  is 
^-^  unusual,  but  add  to  this  fact  one 
hundred  percent  attendance  for  an  en- 
tire Mutual  Improvement  season  and 
you  have  a  record — a  record  which 
was  established  by  the  Junior  Girls  of 
Holladay  Ward,  Cottonwood  Stake. 
Under  the  leadership  of  Mrs.  Irene 
Cannon  Lloyd  this  group  of  nine  girls 
has  been  present  every  night  of  the 
Mutual  lesson  season  of  1937-1938.  At 
Christmas  time  the  president  of  the 
M.  I.  A.  presented  the  class  with  the 
reading  course  book  since  they  had  one 
hundred   percent   attendance    and    en- 

rollment. At  the  close  of  the  year, 
each  girl  received  a  book  of  poems. 

Not  only  did  the  girls  participate  in 
the  ward  activities  one  hundred  percent; 
they  turned  out  one  hundred  percent 
for  both  the  music  festival  and  the 
Junior  Festival.  It  didn't  seem  to  mat- 
ter that  some  of  the  girls  had  to  walk 
over  a  mile,  sometimes  even  in  the 
coldest  of  weather.  One  of  the  girls 
was  offered  money  if  she  would  tend 
her  neighbor's  children.  She  refused 
repeatedly  to  miss  her  Junior  class. 

Although  two  of  the  Juniors  are  not 
members  of  the  Church,  they  have  par- 
ticipated in  each  activity.  Each  time 
the  Junior  class  has  met,  the  girls  have 
brought  with  them  that  grand  spirit  of 
activity  that  Juniors  possess. 


Department  of  Education 

(Concluded  from  page  429) 

is  asked  and  granted,  as  in  most  of  these 
ninety  "seminaries,"  the  public  school  re- 
quirement that  such  religious  training  be 
basic  and  nonsectarian  is  fairly  met.  The 
same  is  true  in  the  college  and  university 
centers  which  fell  under  my  own  observa- 
tion. In  fact,  when  I  found  Methodists  and 
Mormons  cooperating  in  such  undertakings 
as  those  at  the  Universities  of  Idaho  and 
Wyoming,  and  in  the  latter  place  even 
Catholics  included,  my  conclusion  ■was  in- 
evitably that  the  Latter-day  Saints  have 
surpassed  some  of  the  rest  of  us  Protestants 
in  brotherliness;  and  that  we  all  might  take 
a  page  from  the  book  of  the  Mormons  in 
regard  to  supplementing  secular  education 
with  religious  instruction  in  an  economic 
yet  effective  way. 

«  ♦  ■ 

The  Church  Moves  On 

(Concluded  from  page  428) 

President  Heber  J.  Grant  dedicated 
a  chapel  at  Philadelphia,  Eastern  States 


"P\r.  John  A.  Widtsoe  delivered  the 
baccalaureate      address      to      the 
graduates    of   Utah   Agricultural    Col- 
lege, June  5,  1938. 

Bishop  LeGrand  Richards  gave  the 
baccalaureate  address  to  the  graduates 
of  Brigham  Young  University,  June  5, 


XT^"  hither  Ward  Chapel,  at  1515 
vv    Second    East    Street,    Salt   Lake 
City,  Utah,  was  dedicated  by  President 
David  O.  McKay  on  June  5,  1938. 


/"^larence  F.  Tanner,  missionary  for 
^*  the  past  eight  months  in  Southern 
California,  was  killed  near  Hemet, 
California,  when  he  touched  a  live  wire 
on  the  edge  of  a  swimming  pool. 

Elder  Tanner  was  born  in  Salt  Lake 
City,  March  16,  1916.  While  he  was 
attending  the  University  of  Utah,  he 
served  as  a  member  of  the  Ninth  Ward 
Sunday  School  superintendency. 

WE  OITIK  . . . 


From  Missionary  portraits  to  the  largest 


Mail  Orders  Given  Prompt  Attention. 


113  Regent  St.  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 


THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 


(Concluded  [com  page  413) 

arguments  always  heard  when  a  per- 
son is  defending  a  doubtful  habit  is 
the  old  standby,  "personal  liberty." 
But  nicotine  does  away  with  one's 
personal  liberty  and  becomes  an  in- 
sidious master  to  its  unthinking 
slaves.  And  as  for  me,  I  want  to 
assert  my  personal  liberty  and  stand 
up  for  my  right  not  to  smoke — in 
these  days  when  one  is  constantly 
offered  cigarettes  and  when  huge 
ads  proclaim,  "Be  Nonchalant,"  and 
"Not  a  Cough  in  a  Carload."  Why 
worry  about  the  cough,  if  you've  no 
intention  of  smoking  the  carload? 
And  who  says,  "Ten  Million  People 
Can't  Be  Wrong?"  They  can  too. 
A  whole  shoal  of  fish  may  be  caught 
in  a  net — big  ones  and  little  ones 
together — but  that  doesn't  prevent 
any  one  of  them  from  being  a  poor 

A  popular  student  of  a  large  uni- 
versity gave  me  his  opinion  thus: 
"Why  do  I  hate  to  see  a  woman 
smoke?  Because  in  most  cases  it  is 
obviously  a  foolish  and  pointless  af- 
fectation. She  acts  as  though  this 
little  attempt  at  sophistication  is  cer- 
tain to  win  the  plaudits  of  humanity. 
The  girls  who  smoke  for  the  pleas- 
ure of  it  are  a  minimum.  Ninety 
per  cent  of  them  smoke  for  the  same 
reason  they  take  a  drink  of  liquor — 
it's  'putting  on  the  dog,'  'hot  stuff.' 
Anything  like  that  gets  me. 

"The  sweet  young  thing  lights  up, 
inhales  luxuriously,  assumes  a  bored 
look,  gazing  at  the  world  through 
half-closed   eyes,   and   naively   im- 

agines that  the  world  is  at  her  feet. 
But  it's  not. 

"Lots  of  fellows  who  are  them- 
selves inveterate  smokers  are  loudest 
in  their  denunciations.  Their  ex- 
planation is  something  like  this: 
'Well,  it  just  gets  me — that's  all.' 

"The  fact  is  a  woman  who  smokes 
jars  one's  sense  of  the  aesthetic. 
Smoking  is  somehow  not  feminine, 
and  we  like  women  who  are  thor- 
oughly feminine." 

And  so  I  do  not  smoke.  I  would 
rather  keep  my  good  health,  clear 
complexion,  strong,  white  teeth, 
clean  breath,  my  personal  liberty, 
and  my  self-respect.  Also,  I  shall 
keep  my  pin  money, — or  at  least  I 
shall  see  that  it  is  spent  where  it  does 
not  literally  go  up  in  smoke. — Re~ 
printed  by  permission  of  the  Board 
of  Temperance,  Prohibition  and 
Public  Morals,  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church, 


By  Agnes  Just  Reid 

C  WEAR  if  you  want  to,  little  girl, 
*~*  It's  simply  up  to  you, 
But  your  womanhood  is  robbed  of  its 
Every  time  that  you  do. 

Smoke  if  you  want  to,  little  girl, 
There's  no  one  to  say  you  "nay," 

The  loss  of  that  priceless,   fragrant 
Is  the  only  price  you'll  pay. 

Drink  if  you  want  to,  little  girl, 
It's  your  affair,  we  know, 

But  civilization  follows  you 
Whichever  way  you  go. 

•  ♦ 

The  Last  of  the 
^Dickens'  Boys" 

(Concluded  from  page  403) 

his  share  of  the  booty  at  Whiskey 
Gap,  where  the  Indians  stampeded 
one  hundred  forty-seven  of  their 
mules,  and  burned  many  of  the 
caravan  wagons  with  flaming  ar- 

The  population  of  Utah  at  the 
time  of  the  family's  arrival  did  not 
exceed  20,000.  About  seven  years 
later,  in  1870,  Mr.  Culmer  was  or- 
dained an  Elder  in  the  Church. 

At  various  times  the  Culmer 
Brothers  controlled  twenty-six  im- 
portant Utah  business  enterprises. 
In  1900,  when  William  H.  Culmer 
left  Salt  Lake  City,  he  was  superin- 
tendent and  part  owner  of  the  Car- 
bon Mines,  Salt  Lake  Gilsonite 
Company,  Utah  Ozokerite  Com- 
pany, Assyrian  Asphalt  Company,. 
Kyune  Graystone  Company,  Mt. 
Stone  quarries.  Products  from  all 
these  were  developed  and  used  by 
the  Culmer  Paving  Company  of  Salt 
Lake  City  and  Chicago.  This  Com- 
pany also  furnished  Kyune  stone 
for  city  and  county  buildings  of  Salt 

Culmer  was  acquainted  with 
Brigham  Young  and  many  of  his 
family.  "Brigham  Young,"  he  says, 
"was  a  man  of  great  force,  remark- 
able foresight,  and  splendid  exec- 
utive ability,  which  qualities  laid  the 
foundation  for  the  substantial 
growth  and  material  prosperity  of 
Mormon  settlements  throughout  the 

(Continued  from  page  409) 

"The  animals,  led  by  their  Amer- 
ican and  Oriental  drivers,  marched 
down  the  gang-plank  in  a  most 
docile  manner.  As  soon  as  they  hit 
the  solid  earth,  however,  their  de- 
meanor suddenly  changed.  They 
became  excited  and  uncontrollable. 

They  reared,  kicked,  cried,  broke 
their  halters,  tore  up  the  picket  lines 
and  engaged  in  other  fantastic  tricks 
such  as  pawing  and  biting  each 
other.  The  Texans,  at  first  amused 
at  these  antics,  became  panic- 
stricken  and  fled." 

Of  them  their  admiring  com- 
mander had  written — possibly  on 
too  slight  acquaintance:  "They  are 
the  most  docile,  patient,  and  easily 
managed  creatures  in  the  world  and 
infinitely  more  easily  worked  than 


mules."  But  if  this  little  introductory 
demonstration  was  a  disillusioning 
example  of  their  "docile  and  pa- 
tient" natures,  it  was  certainly  no 
less  disheartening  than  the  experi- 
ment of  acclimating  them  to  the  bar- 
ren wastes  of  the  American  South- 

Major  Wayne  had  expected  a 
great  deal  of  the  camels  in  effecting 
a  "lightning  charge  against  unsus- 
pecting Indians;"  but  in  this  he  was 
sadly  disappointed,  for  the  cameleers 
seldom  could  coax  their  animals 
above  a  walk.  And,  if  it  is  true  that 
for  some  months  the  Indians  scur- 
ried like  mad  at  the  sight  of  these 
huge,  squealing,  biting,  "hump- 
ed horses,"  it  was  because  of  the 
latter's  unearthly  appearance  with 
rider  and  load  perched  ten  feet  above 
their  enormous,   padded  feet. 

HThe  next  year  another  caravan  of 
about  forty  more  camels  were 
brought  over,  arriving  in  February, 
1857.  Troops  of  them  were  sta- 
tioned at  the  forts  in  El  Paso,  Texas,, 
and  Fort  Bowie,  Arizona.  Another 
herd  was  used  in  packing  freight 
across  the  plains.  Twenty-three 
were  ordered  to  Fort  Tejon  in 
Southern  California. 

A  subject  of  much  comment  was 
the  camel's  remarkable  ability  of 
finding  adequate  subsistence  in  even 
the  most  barren  country,  and  his 
gigantic  "drink"  of  water,  which 
was  enough  to  last  him  a  week  or 
more.  His  stamina  and  endurance 
cannot  be  denied. 

It  is  not  true,  as  some  writers 
have  alleged,  that  the  camel  experi- 
ment never  gave  any  promise  of  suc- 
cess.    A  caravan  system  had  been 

THE    IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,    1938 

established  by  the  Army,  in  1860, 
that  has  been  compared  with  those 
of  the  Orient;  and  every  military 
post  on  the  principal  trail  between 
Texas  and  California  had  its  quota 
of  camels.  Certain  business  firms 
in  San  Francisco  noted  their  great 
freight-carrying  value,  and  an  at- 
tempt was  made  to  introduce  them 
for  use  in  Nevada  mines. 

But  in  the  end  the  great  "camel 
dream"  of  the  Southwest  proved  to 
be  a  total  and  costly  failure.  The 
famous  reputation  these  animals  had 
on  the  plains  of  Asia  did  not — per- 
haps through  no  fault  of  the  camel 
— assert  itself  on  the  arid  wastes  and 
lava  beds  of  the  American  desert. 
Horses  and  mules  hated  and  feared 
them  and  many  stampedes  resulted 
when  one  of  the  humped-backed 
brutes  chanced  to  pass  too  near.  A 
general  feeling  of  antipathy  pre- 
vailed, which  was  shared  alike  by 
men  and  beasts. 

The  mistake  seems  to  have  been 
in  not  importing  Oriental  drivers 
in  sufficient  numbers.  For  it  is 
true  that  nobody  seemed  capable 
of  managing  the  animals  except 
"Greek  George"  and  "Hi  Jolly" 
(Philip  Tadio)  and  the  other  for- 
eign drivers.  The  teamsters  and 
army  men  lacked  the  necessary  pa- 
tience and  understanding  to  manage 
the  spirited  and  high-strung  crea- 
tures. It  was  like  trying  to  "teach 
an  old  dog  new  tricks."  No  doubt, 
had   the   experiment  been   allowed 

more  time,  the  succeeding  generation 
of  camels  would  have  been  more 

Yet,  notwithstanding  the  vexa- 
tions and  serious  difficulties  experi- 
enced by  all  concerned,  there  is  every 
reason  to  believe  that  real  and  lasting 
success  might  have  been  the  reward 
of  Major  Wayne  but  for  one  great 
event  that  dominated  everything  in 
American  history — the  Civil  War. 
This  dealt  it  its  mortal  blow,  just 
when  the  enterprise  seemed  to  show 
greatest  promise.  Wayne  resigned 
his  commission  to  take  command  of 
a  squad  of  Georgia  troops,  and 
Congress  became  engrossed  with 
more  serious  matters  than  camels. 

"\X7hat  began  as  an  earnest  experi- 
ment resulted  in  dismal  failure. 
As  the  War  raged  between  the 
North  and  South,  the  camels  began 
to  disappear.  Those  at  Forts  Tejon 
and  Yuma  were  taken  to  Benicia 
and  auctioned  off  to  the  highest  bid- 
ders; others  were  taken  to  the  great 
Comstock  mines,  to  carry  salt.  But 
wherever  they  went,  horses  and 
mules  refused  to  stay,  and  disastrous 
runaways  frequently  occurred.  The 
board  of  aldermen  in  Virginia  City 
adopted  a  resolution  that  "no  camels 
should  appear  on  the  streets  except 
between  midnight  and  dawn!" 
Eventually  every  one  of  the  un- 
wanted beasts  was  cast  adrift  on 
the  great  Arizona  desert,  where  they 
wandered  aimlessly,  to  the  vast  an- 
noyance of  prospectors  and  team- 

sters, whose  horses  and  cattle  were 
constantly  being  stampeded  by  sight 
of  them. 

The  Apaches  had,  in  the  mean- 
time, developed  a  fine  taste  for  camel 
steaks,  and  many  a  wandering  rem- 
nant of  the  herd  fell  victim  to  the 
warrior's  arrows.  Regular  hunts 
were  organized,  and  as  late  as  1905, 
some  were  captured  for  exhibition 
purposes;  later  it  was  not  un- 
usual to  catch  a  glimpse  of  one  or 
more  of  Greek  George's  "ships  of 
the  desert"  streaking  across  the  sand 
of  the  creatures  he  had  come  to 
hate  and  fear. 

It  is  extremely  unlikely  that  there 
are  any  survivors  today;  but  until 
life  itself  flickers  out,  the  veteran 
prospector,  as  he  trudges  the  deso- 
late solitudes  between  ancient  claim 
of  yesterday  and  hopeful  strike  of 
tomorrow,  will  continue  to  see, 
around  his  campfire,  the  phantom 
herd,  dimly  stalking  across  the 
moonlit  spaces.  And  if  the  leader 
be  whitened  by  age,  even  as  the  old 
prospector,  that  is  not  strange.  Time 
and  the  desert  do  many  strange 
things.  The  story  is  told  of  one 
hunter  who  saw  "A  red  camel  in 
the  wilds  of  the  desert  with  a  saddle 
on  its  back  to  which  was  lashed  a 
human  skeleton." 

Strange  things  indeed  tread  the 
vast  solitudes,  and  whether  they  be 
fact  or  fancy,  such  is  the  heritage 
of  the  desert,  which  holds  many  in- 
credible truths — and  mirages. 


{Continued  from  page  397) 

laws  against  heretics,  by  which  he 
gradually  deprived  them  of  all  right 
to  the  exercise  of  their  religion,  ex- 
cluded them  from  all  civil  offices,  and 
threatened  them  with  fines,  confis- 
cation, banishment,  and  in  some 
cases  .  .  .  with  death."30 

At  the  instigation  of  the  A  than  - 
asian  bishop,  Ithasius,  a  Span- 
ish bishop  and  six  members  of  his 
sect  including  one  woman,  were  tor- 
tured and  beheaded  with  the  sword 
at  Treves  in  385.  This  "is  the  only 
instance  of  the  bloody  punishment 
of  heretics  in  this  period,  as  it  is  the 
first  in  the  history  of  Christianity. 
But  the  propriety  of  violent  measures 
against  heresy  was  henceforth  vin- 
dicated even  by  the  best  of  the 
fathers  of  the  church."21  The  emi- 
nent present-day  Catholic  historian, 

^Schaff,  History  of  the  Christian  Church,  vol.  Hi, 
p.    143. 

aSchaff,  History  of  the  Christian  Church,  vol.  ill. 
p.  343. 

Mourret,  speaks  of  the  government 
of  Theodosius  as  "gloriously  repara- 

,.  »>22 


A  number  of  Germanic  tribes  had 
accepted  Christianity.  The  West 
Goths  were  in  part  converted  by  the 
Arian  bishop  Wulfila,  who  translated 
the  Bible  into  the  Gothic  language. 
The  East  Goths  adopted  Arianism 
in  the  fourth  century.  The  Lom- 
bards at  the  time  of  their  invasion 
of  northern  Italy  had  already  adopt- 
ed Arianism.  The  Rugi,  the  Bur- 
gundians  and  the  Vandals,  either 
all  were  or  became  Arian.  How- 
ever, the  adoption  by  the  Franks  of 
the  Nicene  creed  was  to  be  decisive 
for  all  of  the  Germanic  tribes.  Cloth- 
ilda, wife  of  Clovis,  was  of  the 
Nicene  faith;  and  at  the  battle  of 
Tolbiac  (496)  Clovis  promised  to 
become  a  Christian  (Athanasian  or 
Nicene)  if  he  were  victorious.  He 
was  baptized  the  following  Christ- 
mas.   "The  conversion  of  Clovis  de- 

22Mourret,  Les  Peres  de  I'Egtise,  p.   189. 

cided  the  religious  future  of  all  of  the 
tribes  of  the  Germanic  race.  .  .  . 
The  baptism  of  the  Franks  was  an 
event  of  immense  importance.  The 
conversion  of  a  powerful  Germanic 
people  to  the  ( Athanasian )  Catholic 
faith,  which  was  also  that  of  the 
Greco-Roman  world,  placed  the  seal 
of  the  definite  victory  of  Christianity 
(of  the  Nicene  creed)   over  Arian 


Thus  the  faith  of  the  Roman  em- 
perors, and  especially  the  faith  of 
Theodosius  and  Justinian,  determin- 
ed the  faith  of  the  Christian  world. 
".  .  .  it  was  always  to  him  (the  em- 
peror )  that  the  council  owed  its  for- 
mation, to  him  that  it  looks  for  its 
program,  its  general  direction,  and 
above  all  for  the  sanction  of  its  de- 
crees. If,  as  Theodosius,  the  em- 
peror, is  distrustful  of  formulas  and 
is  more  willing  to  rely  on  persons, 
it  is  he  (the  emperor)  with  whom 
{Continued  on  page  438) 

^Funk-Hemiaer,  Hhtoire  cte  VEglUe.  p.  191. 


THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     1938 


(Continued  from  page  437) 

one  is  to  be  in  communion.  And  on 
what  does  he  base  his  decision?  On 
his  personal  appreciation  of  the  situ- 
ation. Theodosius  is  Nicene,  like 
all  the  occidentals;  called  to  govern 
the  orient,  he  indicates  to  it  as  types 
of  orthodoxy  the  bishops  of  Rome 
and  Alexandria  ...  a  bishop,  es- 
pecially an  important  bishop,  who 
desires  to  live  quietly  in  peace,  must 
be  careful  not  to  contradict  the  of- 
ficial dogmas  and,  in  general,  the 
manifestations,  even  religious,  of  the 
governmental  will."34 

Unless  additions  or  changes  were 
made  as  divinely  directed,  it  was  the 
duty  of  the  Church  to  preserve  the 
organization,  the  constitution,  and 
the  doctrines,  once  given  by  the 
Savior  direct  or  by  Him  through  the 
Apostles.  The  "Universal  church" 
(now  and  to  remain  Athanasian) 
was  founded  neither  in  the  scriptures 
nor  in  the  traditions  of  the  Church 
as  recorded  in  the  first  two  centuries 
by  Church  writers.  The  officers  of 
the  Church  were  no  longer  the  same, 
nor  had  they  the  same  powers.    The 

^Duchesne,   Histoire   ancienne  de   VEglise.   vol.    U, 
p.   662. 

government  of  the  Church  had  be- 
come despotic,  and  the  people  no 
longer  had  any  voice  in  any  matter 
— not  even  as  to  whether  they  should 
belong  to  the  Church  or  not.  Lib- 
erty of  conscience  no  longer  existed 
— a  real  ethical  or  religious  life  was 
impossible.  The  Church  of  the 
Master  had  disappeared  from  the 
face  of  the  earth;  another  that  had 
taken  its  place  did  not  rest  on  the 
rock  of  revelation,  but  on  despotic 


By  Luacine  Clark  Fox 

'T'he  creek  is  a  dimpling  maiden, 
-*-    Racing   down  a  mountain  path 
Between  tall  trees, 
There  are  bright-faced  flowers  smiling  up 

at  her. 
Her  dress  is  ruffled  up  with  foam, 
And  caught  in  flounces 
Held  by  shiny  pebbles. 
Her  feet  are  white  and  cool  and  bare, 
And  leave  a  gleaming, 
Crystal  stream, 
And  cascades  in  their  wake. 

The  Color  of  Courage 

(Concluded  from  page  402) 

cheek.  No  one  but  Susie  seemed  to 
notice  Emily's  bare  feet  and  the 
faded  dress  she  wore. 

The  First  Lady  hurried  on  her 
busy  way.  The  crowd  shuffled  out 
at  a  respectful  distance  behind  her. 
Only  the  children  lingered  on. 

"Say,  Emily,  where's  that  new 
dress  you  said  you'd  be  a-wearin'?" 
demanded  one  of  the  older  girls. 

Emily  blushed  crimson.  Little 
Susie  could  hold  her  peace  no 

"See  those  red  stripes?"  she 
blurted  out,  pointing  a  stubby  fore- 
finger accusingly  at  the  new  flag. 

"Well,  that's  Emily's  new  dress! 
She  cut  up  the  brand-new  length  of 
calico  herself!" 

But  here  the  overwrought  Susie 
simply  could  not  go  on.  With  un- 
restrained sobs  she  gave  way  to  her 
grief  at  last. 

Emily  fidgeted  uneasily.  Miss 
Kinney  put  her  arm  around  the 
child.  The  others  looked  at  their 
teacher  in  amazement.  Why  did  she 
blink  her  eyes  so  fast  and  say  over 
and  over  to  herself: 

"Red  is  for  courage.  Yes,  red  is 
for  courage!" 




...for  happier  trips 

Radiator  and  Fan  Belt  Checked.     This  may 

save  you  grief  on  the  road. 

Tires  Checked.  It  pays  to  be  safe.  Re- 
place risky  tires  ■with  guaranteed  Atlas 

Battery  Serviced.  It  needs  looking  at  of- 
tener  in  warm  weather. 

Crankcase  Checked.  A  drain  and  refill — 
or  oil  brought  up  to  the  proper  level — is 
good  engine  insurance. 

Specialized  Lubrication.  Not  just  a  grease 
job,  but  the  right  lubricant  in  the  right 
places — for    your    comfort    and    safety. 

Pep  88  Gasoline.  The  climate-controlled 
gasoline  that  gives  more  power,  smooth- 
ness, economy. 

It  takes  only  a  few  minutes  for  a  trained 
Pep  88 — Vico  service  man  to  check  over 
your  car  .  .  .  and  those  few  minutes  will 
be  well  spent.  They  may  save  you  hours 
later  on. 

Unless  major  repairs  are  required,  you  can 
get  everything  your  car  needs  right  at 
your  neighborhood  Pep  88 — Vico  station. 
Drive   in.      Get   set   for   a   carefree   trip. 

Before  you  start 
— and  along 
the  way — 




MOTOR  OIL      „ 




THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 


(Concluded  from  page  395) 

plains,  but  was  near  it,  as  on  one 
occasion  Moroni  sought  to  induce 
the  Lamanites  to  "meet  them  upon 
the  plains  between  the  two  cities." 
Alma  52:20. 

Mulek  was  one  of  a  number  of 
cities  which  were  on  "the  east 
borders  by  the  seashore."  Alma 
51 :26.  It  was  from  here  that  Tean- 
cum  fled  northward  on  one  occasion 
to  reach  the  city  of  Bountiful. 
Alma  52:23-27. 

Thus  we  establish  the  land  Boun- 
tiful to  the  north  of  Zarahemla  and 
the  City  Bountiful  in  the  eastern  end 
of  the  Land  Bountiful. 

The  City  of  Moroni  is  also  im- 
portant to  us  as  it  was  built  "by  the 

east  sea :  and  it  was  on  the  south  by 
the  line  of  the  possessions  of  the 
Lamanites."  Alma  50:13.  This 
would  place  it  on  the  east  end  of  the 
T.  This  location  is  important  as 
Moroni  was  one  of  the  cities  which 
sank  beneath  the  sea  at  the  time  of 
the  crucifixion.     Ill  Nephi  8:9. 

It  would  be  impossible  to  place 
more  of  the  lands  in  an  article  of 
this  length,  but  with  the  use  of  the 
accompanying  chart  and  the  text  of 
the  Book  of  Mormon  many  more 
may  be  located  with  surprising  ac- 
curacy. Perhaps  if  all  the  require- 
ments of  the  text  are  considered,  the 
Book  of  Mormon  student  may  locate 
the  Land  of  Zarahemla  on  the  pres- 
ent-day map. 


[Continued  from  page  401) 

pose  of  the  journey  was  withheld. 
President  Snow  answered  the  call 
to  go,  and  then  wondered  and  wor- 
ried until  further  light  was  given. 

He  finally  went  to  bed  and  rested 
fairly  well  during  the  night,  appear- 
ing to  feel  very  much  better  the 
following  morning.  It  was  Wednes- 
day, May  17,  the  day  on  which  the 
special  conference  opened  in  the 
tabernacle  in  St.  George.  It  was 
during  one  of  these  meetings  that 
President  Snow  received  the  re- 
newed revelation  on  tithing.  I  was 
sitting  at  a  table  on  the  stand,  re- 
porting the  proceedings,  when  all  at 
once  father  paused  in  his  discourse. 
Complete  stillness  filled  the  room. 
I  shall  never  forget  the  thrill  as  long 
as  I  live.  When  he  commenced  to 
speak  again  his  voice  strengthened 
and  the  inspiration  of  God  seemed 
to  come  over  him,  as  well  as  over  the 
entire  assembly.  His  eyes  seemed 
to  brighten  and  his  countenance  to 
shine.  He  was  filled  with  unusual 
power.  Then  he  revealed  to  the 
Latter-day  Saints  the  vision  that  was 
before  him. 

God  manifested  to  him  there  and 
then  not  only  the  purpose  of  the  call 
to  visit  the  Saints  in  the  South,  but 
also  Lorenzo  Snow's  special  mission, 
the  great  work  for  which  God  had 
prepared  and  preserved  him,  and  he 
unveiled  the  vision  to  the  people. 
He  told  them  that  he  could  see,  as  he 
had  never  realized  before,  how  the 
law  of  tithing  had  been  neglected  by 
the  people,  also  that  the  Saints, 
themselves,  were  heavily  in  debt,  as 
well  as  the  Church,  and  now  through 
strict    obedience    to    this    law — the 

paying  of  a  full  and  honest  tithing 

— not   only  would   the    Church    be 

relieved  of  its  great  indebtedness, 

but    through    the   blessings    of    the 

Lord  this  would  also  be  the  means 

of  freeing  the  Latter-day  Saints  from 

their     individual     obligations,     and 

they   would   become    a    prosperous 


Directly     on     tithing,     President 

Snow  said: 

The  word  of  the  Lord  is:  The  time  has 
now  come  for  every  Latter-day  Saint,  who 
calculates  to  be  prepared  for  the  future  and 
to  hold  his  feet  strong  upon  a  proper  foun- 
dation, to  do  the  will  of  the  Lord  and  to 
pay  his  tithing  in  full.  That  is  the  word 
of  the  Lord  to  you,  and  it  will  be  the  word 
of  the  Lord  to  every  settlement  throughout 
the  land  of  Zion. 

President  Snow  then  referred  to 
the  terrible  drought  which  had  con- 
tinued so  severely  for  three  years  in 
the  South.  The  Virgin  River  and 
all  its  tributaries  were  virtually  dry. 
One  old  resident  stated: 

This  has  been  the  driest  winter  in  thirty- 
five  years;  and  the  winter  before,  the  driest 
in  thirty-four  years.  The  Pine  Valley 
Mountains,  usually  covered  with  snow,  are 
comparatively  barren.  Conditions  are  very 
discouraging  to  the  families  of  this  locality. 
The  lucern  and  grain  are  drying  up  now 
and  the  recent  frost  played  havoc  with  the 
grapes.  Prospects  are  very  discouraging 
mdeed.Salt  Lake  Herald,  May  21,  1899. 

Four  days  later  this  statement  was 


This  is  the  coldest  May,  and  the  driest 
year  the  Dixie  people  have  known. — Salt 
Lake  Herald,  May  25,  1899. 

President  Snow  said,  after  his  re- 

All  through  "Dixie"  we  found  everything 
(Concluded  on  page  440) 

...for  it  has  no 
moving  parts  in  its 
freezing  system 




Save  with 

but  never  hear 

•  Continued  low  running  cost 

•  Lasting  efficiency 

•  More  years  of  satisfaction 

•  Savings  that  pay  for  it 

Here's  a  word  to  the  thrifty:  With 
a  Gas  refrigerator  y°u're  h*e©  from 
costly  upkeep  expense  because  this 
silent,  different  refrigerator  has  no 
moving  parts  in  its  freezing  system. 
No  noise,  no  wear.  See  the  new 
models.    Easy  terms. 



Serving  21  Utah  Communities 


THE    IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 


dying  out.    The  stock  were  dying  by  hun- 
dreds; we  could  see  them  as  we  traveled- 
along,   many   of   them  being    nothing   but 
skin    and    bones,    and    many    lying    down 
never,  I  suppose,  to  get  up  again. 

Tn  speaking  of  these  serious  drought 
conditions  President  Snow  told 
the  people  that  if  they  would  observe 
the  law  of  tithing  from  then  on,  and 
pay  a  full  and  honest  tithing,  that 
they  might  go  ahead,  plough  their 
land  and  plant  the  seed;  and  he 
promised  them,  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord,  that  the  clouds  would  gather, 
the  rains  from  heaven  descend,  their 
lands  would  be  drenched,  and  the 
rivers  and  ditches  filled,  and  they 
would  reap  a  bounteous  harvest  that 
very  season. 

Many  of  the  people  had  become 
so  discouraged  that  they  were  not 
willing  to  risk  the  seeds  of  another 
planting,  and  many  had  not  even 
ploughed  their  fields.  Cattle  every- 
where were  dying,  and  the  country 
was  parched.  It  was  now  getting 
very  late  in  the  planting  season  in 
that  southern  country,  and  here  the 
Prophet  of  the  Lord  made  this  won- 
derful prediction.  Everyone  present 
in  that  vast  congregation  knew  that 
he  was  speaking  under  the  inspira- 
tion of  the  Holy  Spirit. 

That  evening,  father,  mother,  and 
I  were  again  in  the  room  together 
and  father  walked  up  and  down  the 
floor  as  he  had  done  the  previous 
night,  but  there  was  a  sweet  expres- 
sion of  happiness  and  joy  on  his 
face.  He  talked  aloud  again,  as  he 
did  the  night  before,  and  this  is  what 
he  said: 

Now  I  know  why  I  came  to  St.  George. 
The  Lord  sent  me  here,  and  he  has  a  great 
work  for  me  to  perform.  There  is  no  mis- 
take about  it.  I  can  see  the  great  future 
for  the  Church  and  I  can  hardly  wait  to 
get  back  to  Salt  Lake  City  to  commence 
the  great  work. 

When  the  returning  party  reached 
Nephi,  where  we  were  to  take  train 
for  home,  President  Snow  called  the 
members  all  together  in  a  meeting 
which  will  never  be  forgotten  by 
those  who  were  present.  He  com- 
missioned every  one  present  to  be 
his  special  witness  to  the  fact  that 
the  Lord  had  given  this  revelation  to 
him.  He  put  all  the  party  under 
covenant  and  promise  not  only  to 
obey  the  law  of  tithing  themselves 
but  also  that  each  would  bear  wit- 
ness to  this  special  manifestation  and 
would  spread  the  tithing  message  at 
every  opportunity.  He  made  won- 
derful promises  to  those  who  would 

[Continued  from  page  439) 

be  faithful  to  these  admonitions.  He 
was  filled  with  great  power  and  in- 
spiration and  spoke  with  such  feel- 
ing that  Elder  Francis  M.  Lyman 
says  in  his  journal:  "I  was  almost 
overcome,  could  hardly  control  my 
feelings.  .  .  ." 

President  Snow,  with  his  party, 
returned  to  Salt  Lake  City,  Satur- 
day, May  27,  1899.  During  his  ab- 
sence of  eleven  days,  he  visited  six- 
teen settlements,  held  twenty-four 
meetings,  delivered  twenty-six  ad- 

President  Snow  saw  his  work 
very  clearly  and  took  hold  of  it  with 
great  energy  after  his  return  home. 
The  word  of  the  Lord  to  the  Saints 
in  the  South  became  God's  message 
to  the  entire  people,  and  spread  rap- 
idly throughout  all  the  stakes  of 
Zion  and  into  the  mission  fields.  The 
importance  of  the  journey  to  "Dixie" 
grew  as  the  hearts  of  the  Latter-day 
Saints  were  moved  upon  by  the 
spirit  of  the  message. 

President  Snow  was  instructed  by 
the  Lord  to  call  the  memorable 
solemn  assembly  in  the  Salt  Lake 
Temple.  The  call  for  this  assembly 
did  not  originate  in  his  own  mind, 
but  was  a  command  from  the  Lord 
who  revealed  it  in  vision.  The 
solemn  assembly  was  held  July  2, 
1899,  and  was  in  session  from  10 
o'clock  in  the  morning  until  after  7 
o'clock  in  the  evening.  Such  a  gath- 
ering of  Priesthood  had  never  be- 
fore been  held  in  the  Church.  All 
twenty-six  of  the  General  Author- 
ities of  the  Church  were  there.  All 
the  forty  stakes  of  Zion  and  478 
wards  were  represented.  The  spirit 
of  the  meeting  was  that  of  testimony 
and  the  promotion  of  faith,  not  one 
of  temporal  and  business  affairs. 
The  renewed  tithing  revelation  was 
the  theme  of  all  the  eighteen  ad- 
dresses. Humble,  honest  obedience 
to  the  tithing  law  became  rather  a 
spiritual  gift  and  privilege  than  a 
material  duty.  The  solemnity  of  the 
occasion  was  impressed  upon  the 
assemblage  when  President  Snow 
led  in  the  sacred  Hosannah  shout 
and  pronounced  glorious  blessings 
and  promises  upon  the  people. 

Oresident  Snow  gathered  and 
compiled  data  regarding  the 
tithes  being  paid  by  the  people,  but 
kept  especially  in  mind  the  Saints  in 
the  South.  He  called  for  a  daily  re- 
port showing  the  exact  amount  of 
tithing  received  from  those  settle- 
ments.    I  well  remember  handing 

him  one  of  these  reports.  After 
looking  over  it  carefully  he  said: 
"Wonderful,  wonderful,  the  good 
people  in  'Dixie'  are  not  only  paying 
one-tenth  of  their  income,  but  they 
must  be  giving  all  they  have  to  the 
Lord's  work!" 

But  the  rains  did  not  come,  and 
the  drought  was  not  broken.  Pres- 
ident Snow  had  the  daily  weather 
report  placed  on  his  desk  which  he 
carefully  looked  over,  but  there  were 
no  indications  of  any  storms  moving 
in  the  direction  of  southern  Utah. 
Week  after  week  passed  and  the 
only  word  was  that  southern  Utah 
was  burning  up  under  the  hot  sun 
and  there  seemed  to  be  no  prospects 
of  any  change. 

One  morning,  as  I  was  going  up 
the  stairway  leading  to  father's  bed- 
room, I  was  surprised  to  hear  him 
talking  to  someone.  I  did  not  know 
that  anyone  had  preceded  me  to  his 
room  that  morning,  but  not  wishing 
to  disturb  him,  I  walked  quietly  up 
the  heavily  carpeted  stairway  lead- 
ing to  his  room.  The  door  was  open, 
and  as  I  reached  it,  there  I  saw  this 
aged,  gray-haired  prophet,  down  on 
his  knees  before  his  bedside,  not  in 
the  manner  of  praying,  but  seeming 
to  talk  to  the  Lord  as  if  he  might 
have  been  right  in  His  very  presence. 
He  was  pouring  out  his  heart  in 
pleading  for  the  Saints  in  the  South. 
I  stood  at  the  open  door  for  a  few 
moments  and  heard  him  say: 

Oh,  Lord,  why  didst  thou  make  those 
promises  to  the  good  people  in  St.  George, 
if  they  are  not  to  be  fulfilled?  Thou  didst 
promise  them,  if  they  would  accept  thy 
command  to  obey  the  law  of  tithing,  thou 
wouldst  send  the  rains  from  heaven  and 
bless  them  with  a  bounteous  harvest. 
These  good  people  accepted  thy  word  and 
are  not  only  paying  a  tenth  of  their  in- 
come, but  they  are  offering  all  they  have 
to  thee.  Do  keep  thy  promise  and  vindi- 
cate the  words  of  thy  servant  through 
whom  thou  didst  speak. 

I  could  not  bear  to  hear  any  more. 
I  turned  from  the  door  with  my  heart 
bleeding  and  went  down  the  stairs. 

When  father  came  into  his  office 
that  morning,  I  noticed  that  he  seem- 
ed discouraged,  and  seemed  to  take 
little  interest  in  his  work.  Still,  no 
report  of  any  rains  in  St.  George. 
Several  days  passed.  One  day  there 
was  a  knock  at  the  door.  Brother 
Gibbs,  the  secretary,  being  out,  I 
answered  the  call.  It  was  a  mes- 
senger boy  with  a  telegram.  I  signed 
for  it,  opened  the  telegram,  and  as 
I  was  approaching  father's  desk,  I 
could  see  on  the  face  of  that  tele- 
gram:     "Rain  in  St.   George."      I 

THE     IMPROVEMENT    ERA,    JULY,     1938 


was  so  happy  I  could  not  wait,  but 
called  out:  "Father,  they  have  had 
rain  in  St.  George." 

"Read  it,  my  boy,  read  it,"  he 
said,  and  I  read  the  telegram  telling 
of  a  great  rain  that  had  come  to  the 
people  there,  filling  the  river  and  its 
tributaries  and  the  canals  and 
drenching  the  entire  country.  The 
newspaper  account  read: 

Special  per  Deseret  Telegraph. — St. 
George,  Aug.  2.  The  long  and  severe 
drought  that  Dixie  has  been  suffering  from 
for  the  last  seventeen  months  was  broken 
this  morning  and  at  noon  today  1 .89  inches 
of  rain  fell,  every  drop  of  which  went  into 
the  parched   earth. 

The  amount  of  good  that  will  result  will 
be  great.  More  rain  fell  than  Dixie  has 
had  in  twenty  months.  Her  grain  crops  are 
30  per  cent  below  the  average,  and  the 
alfalfa  is  almost  as  low,  while  fruit  is  suf- 
fering considerably.  Little  or  no  water  has 
been  flowing  from  Pine  Valley  for  three 
months  past,  and  several  towns  have 
barely  had  enough  water  for  culinary  pur- 
poses.— Deseret  News,  Aug.  2,  1899. 

The  Lord  had  given  the  Saints 
sufficient  time  to  prepare  the  soil  and 
plant  the  seed.  Then,  too,  the  fulfil- 
ment of  the  prophecy  depended  upon 
the  observance  of  the  tithing  law. 
The  people  were  given  a  little  more 
than  two  months  to  prepare  their 
lands  and  to  prove  their  acceptance 
of  the  Lord's  command  to  them.  The 
prophecy  was  made  in  the  latter  part 
of  May,  and  its  fulfillment  was  com- 
menced with  the  beginning  of  the 
heavy  rains  on  August  2.  These 
rains  continued.  The  crops  matured 
and  the  promised  harvest  was  reap- 
ed by  the  faithful  Saints  in  the  St. 
George  Stake. 

Father  took  the  telegram  from  my 
hand,  read  it  very  slowly,  and  after 
a  few  moments,  got  up  from  his 
desk,  and  left  the  office.  A  little 
while  afterwards  I  followed  him  into 
the  house  and  asked  mother  where 
he  was.  When  she  told  me  she  had 
not  seen  him,  I  know  he  must  have 
gone  to  his  room.  I  walked  quietly 
up  the  stairway  and  before  reaching 
the  top  I  heard  him  talking,  as  I  had 
on  the  other  occasion.  I  went  to  his 
room  and  there  he  was  again,  down 
on  his  knees  pouring  out  his  heart  in 
gratitude  and  thanksgiving  to  the 
Lord.     He  said: 

Father,  what  can  I  do  to  show  my  ap- 
preciation for  the  blessing  which  thou  hast 
given  to  the  good  people  in  St.  George? 
Thou  hast  fulfilled  thy  promise  to  them 
and  vindicated  the  words  spoken  through 
thy  servant.  Do  show  me  some  special 
thing  that  I  can  do  to  prove  my  love  for 

This  faithful  servant  of  the  Lord, 
who  had  devoted  all  his  long  life  in 
beautiful  and  unwavering  service  to 

God,  felt  that  he  had  not  done 
enough  and  wanted  to  do  more. 
There  he  was  in  the  presence  of  His 
Heavenly  Father,  overcome  with  joy 
and  happiness.  The  last  words  I 
heard,  as  I  was  returning  down  the 
stairs,  were:  "Thou  canst  not  ask 
anything  of  me  that  I  am  not  willing 
to  do,  even  though  it  be  the  offering 
of  my  life,  to  prove  my  love  for 

\17hen  father  returned  to  his  office, 
his  face  was  filled  with  hap- 
piness and  I  am  very  sure  that  his 
heart  was  lightened  and  his  difficult 
task  made  much  easier. 

The  Lord  had  spoken.  His  word 
was  carried  on  the  wings  of  inspira- 
tion to  the  farthest  ends  of  the 
Church.  The  spirit  of  tithepaying 
wrought  upon  the  hearts  of  the  peo- 
ple. The  Latter-day  Saints  yielded 
honest  obedience  in  the  payments  of 
their  tithes,  and  the  relief  of  the 
Church  from  its  bondage  of  debt  be- 
came assured. 

President  Snow  expressed  the  de- 
sire: "Before  I  die,  I  hope  to  see 
the  Church  cleared  of  debt,  and  in 
a  commanding  position  financially." 
He  knew  the  Lord's  plan  would  suc- 
ceed; and  when  it  was  well  under 
way,  he  asked  Elder  Rudger  Claw- 
son  when  the  Church  would  be  out 
of  debt.  Brother  Clawson,  who  had 
been  appointed  to  compile  the  finan- 
cial statistics,  replied:  "President 
Snow,  if  you  live  until  the  fall  of 
1 905,  you  will  see  the  Church  out  of 
debt,  or,  at  least,  able  to  take  up  all 
its  obligations,  if  it  wishes  to  do  so." 

President  Snow  then  said:  "That 
will  be  fine,  Brother  Clawson.  If 
your  prediction  does  come  true  and 
I  live  to  see  the  Church  out  of  debt, 
we  will  have  a  great  jubilee  in  the 
Salt  Lake  Temple.  I  will  call  the 
people  together  and  burn  the  last 
bonds  before  their  eyes.  There  will 
be  the  greatest  rejoicing  among  the 
Latter-day  Saints  that  they  have 
ever  known." 

April  5,  1907,  President  Joseph  F. 
Smith  stated  at  conference: 

The  tithes  of  the  people  during  the  year 
1906  have  surpassed  the  tithes  of  any  other 
year.  ...  I  want  to  say  another  thing  to 
you,  and  I  do  so  by  way  of  congratulation, 
and  that  is,  that  we  have,  by  the  blessings 
of  the  Lord  and  the  faithfulness  of  the 
Saints  in  paying  their  tithing,  been  able  to 
pay  off  our  bonded  indebtedness.  Today 
the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints  owes  not  a  dollar  that  it  cannot  pay 
at  once.  At  last  we  are  in  a  position  that 
we  can  pay  as  we  go.  We  do  not  have 
to  borrow  any  more,  and  will  not  have 
to  if  the  Latter-day  Saints  continue  to  live 
their  religion  and  observe  this  law  of  tith- 
(Concluded  on  page  442) 



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By  the  time  this  magazine 
reaches  your  hands,  the 
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If  you  are  interested  in  ed- 
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THE    IMPROVEMENT    ERA,    JULY,    1938 


(Concluded  from  page  441) 
ing.      It    is    the    law    of    revenue    to    the 

President  Snow  did  not  live  to  see 
it,  as  he  died  October  10,  1901,  but 
the  Lord's  plan,  inaugurated  through 
him,  placed  the  Church  in  the  com- 
manding financial  position  which 
President  Snow  foresaw. 

President  Snow  said: 

The  law  of  tithing  is  one  of  the  most 
important  ever  revealed  to  man.  The  pen- 
alty following  disobedience  to  the  law  of 
tithing  is  that  the  disobedient  shall  not  live 
among  the  people  of  God.  But  through 
this  law  the  blessings  of  prosperity  and 
success  will  be  given  unto  the  Saints. 

{Continued  from  page  399) 

"That  fellow,"  the  driver  ex- 
plained, "came  in  here  the  same  year 
as  Ben  Wood  and  Nat  Crooks. 
Father  knows  all  of  them.  They 
had  equal  chances." 

"Who  is  Nat  Crooks?" 

"He  lives  farther  up  the  river. 
He  has  a  good  place  but  he  has  had 
to  count  pennies  all  his  days.  He 
has  a  large  family  but  he  has  man- 
aged to  educate  them.  Of  his  four 
boys  three  are  staying  with  the  land. 
That  shows  opportunity  has  to  be 
grasped  as  well  as  found." 

"Which  proves,"  Vera  said  with 
iinality,  "that  farming  is  cuckoo." 
She  leaned  forward  and  placed  a 
kiss  on  her  husband's  lips. 

The  Advertisers, 

and  Where  You  Will  Find 

Their  Messages 

Beneficial  Life  Ins.  Co...-Back  Cover 

Brigham  Young  University 441 

Daynes  Music  Co -447 

Deseret  News  Press  446 

Eastman  Kodak  Company 433 

Globe  Mills  419 

Home  Fire  Insurance  Co 447 

Hotel  Lankershim 387 

Ken-Ray  Auto  Camp 389 

KSL  Radio  Station 

Inside  Back  Cover 

L.  D.  S.  Business  College 445 

Landes  Tractor  &  Equipment  Co..388 

Levi  Strauss 387 

Midwest  Dairy  443 

Mountain  Fuel  Supply  Co 439 

New  Grand  Hotel  443 

Ogden  School  of  Beauty  Culture.,443 

Polk,  R.  L.  &  Co ..443 

Quish  School  of  Beauty  Culture-444 

Schoss  Electric  Co 443 

Shell  Oil  Co.  Inside  Front  Cover 

Utah  Engraving  Co 435 

Utah  Power  &  Light  Co ..433 

Utah  Oil  Co 438 

During  the  M.  I.  A.  Conference, 
in  1899,  at  one  of  the  officers'  meet- 
ings, President  Snow  spoke  on  tith- 
ing. At  the  conclusion  of  his  ad- 
dress the  following  resolution  was 
presented  by  Elder  B.  H.  Roberts: 

Resolved:  That  we  accept  the  doctrine 
of  tithing,  as  now  presented  by  President 
Snow,  as  the  present  word  and  will  of  the 
Lord  unto  us,  and  we  do  accept  it  with  all 
our  hearts;  we  will  ourselves  observe  it, 
and  we  will  do  all  in  our  power  to  get  the 
Latter-day  Saints  to  do  likewise. 

The  resolution  was  unanimously 
adopted  by  all  present  rising  to  their 
feet  and  shouting,  "Aye." 

Elder    Francis    M.    Lyman    then 
arose  and  said: 

President  Snow:  I  believe  this  body  of 
men  are  about  as  clear  upon  this  law,  and 
have  about  as  faithfully  met  their  obliga- 
tions in  regard  to  tithing,  as  any  body  of 
men  in  the  Church.  It  is  a  splendid  thing, 
brethren,  for  us  to  be  always  in  shape  to 
accept  the  will  of  the  Lord  when  it  comes. 

Visibly  affected,  President  Snow 
then  arose  and  said : 

Brethren,  the  God  of  our  fathers,  Abra- 
ham, Isaac,  and  Jacob,  bless  you.  Every 
man  who  is  here,  who  has  made  this  prom- 
ise, will  be  saved  in  the  Celestial  Kingdom. 
God  bless  you.    Amen. 

■  ♦  « 


"No  fair  bothering  the  driver." 

The  shadows  were  lengthening 
and  the  air  was  keenly  cool  with  the 
fragrance  of  evening  when  Lynn 
turned  his  car  back  toward  the 
ranch.  Again  he  drove  slowly  and 
as  they  neared  the  Wood  fences  he 
sighed  again. 

"What  a  place!  What  a  place! 
Why  wasn't  I  born  fifty  years  ago?" 

/\t  the  ranch  he  stopped 
the  car  in  front  without  leaving  the 
county  road.  They  could  see  Reid 
dawdling  on  the  front  porch.  Miss 
Meade  was  there,  too,  Lynn,  Mark, 
and  Nancy  got  out  and  went  toward 
the  house,  Reid  stepped  off  the 
porch  to  meet  them.  He  was  ac- 
quainted with  the  men.  Lynn  spoke 
to  him  about  the  work. 

"I  could  use  another  man.  Stick 
around  a  few  minutes."  He  turned 
to  Nancy.  There  was  a  glint  about 
his  eyes  that  was  an  instant  chal- 
lenge. "Too  bad  you  were  gone  so 
long,"  he  said  to  her.  "A  friend  of 
yours  called." 

"Which  friend?"  Nancy  asked 
sharply,  suspicion  leaping  to  her 

"Your  friend.  The  boy  friend. 
He  left  just  a  few  minutes  before 
you  came." 

"You  mean  Pete  was  here?" 

"I  think  that  is  his  name.     You 

see  Jim  told  me  you  had  gone  home 

with  your  friends." 

Nancy's  face  went  suddenly  scar- 
let, not  that  she  had  been  so  eager 
to   see   Pete — -but  the  nerve  of   it. 

She  turned  abruptly  and  went  back 
to  the  car.  Vera  grabbed  her  joy- 

"He's     jealous,    Nanc.       Snatch 

your  chance.    Snatch  your  chance." 

"He's  insolent  and  rude." 

" — and  any  girl's  dream  of  bliss." 

"You  make  me  weary,  Vic." 

"That  is  okay  by  me  as  long  as 
you  make  good  your  golden  oppor- 

When  the  men  came  back  Lynn 
seemed  much  the  happier  of  the  two. 

"All  set.    Start  work  tomorrow." 

Phyllis  beamed  her  happiness. 
"Now  we  can  finish  our  little  house." 

"I'll  have  to  go  back  with  you  to 
get  my  clothes." 

"I'll  send  them  over  with  the  mail 

And  so  the  threes  drove  away 
leaving  behind  a  disconsolate  man 
and  an  angry  girl.  They  sat  on  the 
lawn  talking  jerkily  until  it  was 
frankly  dark;  then  Mark  went  to  the 
bunkhouse  and  Nancy  to  her  room. 

She  was  still  angry  when  she  went 
into  Mr.  Wood's  room  the  next 
morning.  She  needed  some  informa- 
tion and  to  show  her  defiance  went 
to  the  father  instead  of  the  son  for 
it.  As  she  was  leaving  the  room  he 
stopped  her. 

"How  is  the  new  boss  coming?" 

"Very  well,  I  think.  Things  move 
with  dispatch." 

He  grinned  with  frank  enjoyment. 
"Riled  you  last  night,  didn't  he?" 

"You  heard?" 

"Everything.  I  might'a  told  your 
friend  the  truth  but  I  don't  believe 
in  interfering.  The  window  was 
open  and  no  one  bothered  to  keep 
their  voices  down." 

"Then  you  heard  Vera — earlier?" 

"Couldn't  help  it." 

"Vera  talks  too  much." 

"She's  got  sense,  though."  He 
chuckled  quietly.  "This  youngen 
will  feel  better  now.  You  like  him 
a  little  bit,  don't  you?" 


THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     193  8 


"Yes.    Yes,  of  course,  but — " 

Was  she  seeing  things  or  did  the 
faded  old  eyes  leap  with  sudden 
light?  "He  wouldn't  be  bad  to  team 
up  with,  would  he?" 

"He's  very — eligible,"  she  an- 
swered stiffly. 

He  looked  at  her  sharply.  Then 
suddenly  demanded.  "Why  don't 
you  go  home  for  a  visit.  Guess  we 
don't  need  to  work  our  help  all  the 
time.    I  hear  your  father  is  poorly." 

"I  should  love  it." 

"Hop  to  it.  Take  the  small  car 
and  go  by  yourself." 


"Right  now.  When  they  start 
stacking  they  might  need  you." 

"You  blessed  sinner."  Nancy 
gave  him  a  swift  impulsive  kiss  and 
ran  to  change. 



ancy  turned  the  car 
recklessly  and  drove  out 
across  the  sagebrush  flat.  It  was 
too  dry,  this  flat,  for  farming  and 
it  lay  much  as  nature  had  formed  it; 
the  only  traces  of  man  were  the  nu- 
merous trails  that  cut  through  it — 
like  this  one  that  had  brought  her  to 
her  work  and  was  now  taking  her 
back.  Another  wound  away  and 
away  across  the  desert  until  it 
merged  into  others  and  civilization. 
One  went  up  Antelope  Creek  where 
there  were  only  rocks  and  scrub 
trees.  Some  merely  lead  on  and  on 
getting  nowhere  in  particular.  Life 
depended  a  great  deal  on  the  road 
one  took.  Good  thing  she  was  cer- 
tain of  hers. 

She  had  forgotten  how  barren  life 
was  of  comforts  at  home.  She  went 
to  sleep  that  night  with  a  deep  de- 
pression clinging  to  her  spirits  and 
it  would  not  be  shaken.  The  house 
was  a  little  hotter,  poverty  a  little 
sharper,  hopes  a  little  less  definite 
than  she  had  remembered.  A  great 
deal  of  the  time  she  sat  by  her  father. 

"Aren't  you  getting  better?"  she 
asked  hopefully. 

"No,"  he  answered  simply.  "I  am 
not  getting  better." 

He  took  an  avid  interest  in  her 
conversation  but  when  she  tried  to 
sit  by  him  and  tell  him  about  her 
experiences  words  failed  her.  Hap- 
penings seemed  so  trivial  compared 
with  the  far-seeing,  baffling  look  in 
his  eyes.  With  him  her  thoughts 
stood  still.  Words  stumbled  over 
her  awkward  tongue. 

Then  all  too  quickly  the  visit  was 
over  and  she  was  coming  back 
across  the  flat.  The  sky  was  alight 
with    stars.      The    moon,    a    silver 

scimitar,  hung  low  above  the  eastern 
hills.  And  now  as  she  noticed  roads 
between  the  brush  she  knew  some- 
where another  road  was  beckoning, 
beckoning  insistently!  The  thought 
of  it  was  new  and  terrifying.  Would 
her  father  put  his  feet  to  it? 

She  put  the  car  away  and  as  she 
came  up  the  steps  Reid  rose  out  of 
the  dark  to  open  the  screen  for  her. 

"You  finally  returned?"  he  bark- 

At  the  sharp  words  Nancy  step- 
ped upon  the  porch.  The  clear  night 
light  struck  Reid  Wood's  face.  It 
was  pulled  into  lines  of  ill  humor. 

"So  you  are  back,"  he  said  again. 

"Did  I  stay  too  long?" 

"Yes,"  curtly.  "There  was  no 
reason  for  your  going." 

"But  your  father — " 

"I'm  running  this  spread  just  now. 
This  happens  to  be  a  busy  time." 

"Oh."  This  had  not  been  a  busy 
time.  Tomorrow  or  next  day  when 
the  stacking  had  been  started — but 
not  now.  In  spite  of  leaving  home 
she  had  been  so  eager  to  get  back. 
It  was  good  to  know  the  feeling  of 
security  this  work  had  brought  her. 
It  was  satisfying  to  be  earning. 
Here  she  might  forget  for  a  while 
the  fear  the  insistent  new  road  had 
brought.  Instead  she  had  come 
back  to  a  sulky  employer.  Flaming 
anger  swept  over  her  and  she  turned 
sharply  to  go  inside. 

The  young  man  reached  a  hand  to 
stay  her;  and  then  suddenly  she  was 
in  his  arms  and  his  face  was  very 
close  to  hers. 

"Don't  you  dare,"  he  whispered 
huskily,  "ever  leave  me  again." 

"But  I  shall."  Her  voice  was  cold 
with  fury.  She  slipped  from  his 
arms  and  paused  in  the  darkness  of 
the  doorway.  "I  think  I  shall  leave 
whenever  I  feel  like  it." 

He  stepped  toward  her  but  she 
fled  to  her  own  room.  Tremblingly 
she  laid  aside  her  things  and  made 
ready  for  bed.  Home  problems 
were  forgotten  now.  She  could  feel 
acutely  the  possessiveness  of  his 
arms.  With  what  insouciance  he 
could  swing  from  one  girl  to  an- 
other. But  she  found  her  anger  ebb- 
ing. Vera  had  been  right.  She  lay 
staring  into  the  patch  of  light  that 
came  through  her  unblinded  win- 
dow. A  lovely,  lovely  road  was 
opening,  inviting  and  intriguing — a 
road  that  would  lead  to  the  Land  of 
Her  Heart's  Desire.  She  was  glad 
she  had  bought  a  new  dress  in  Blaine 

(  To  be  Continued) 



Finer  Flavor  and  Quality 

See  our  New  Plant 

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Let  me  do  your  IRONING  just 

One  Week!  Signed— Fred  Schoss. 


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THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,    1938 



(Continued  from  page  393) 


natural  wants  of  His  children  on 
earth  shall  be  supplied,  in  return  for 
their  willingness  to  work.  Beyond 
that,  every  man  must  move  on  as  his 
natural  gifts  may  permit. 

N  THE  solution  of  this  fundamental 
and  difficult  problem,  you  will  be 
driven  to  teach  your  "own  genera- 
tion," weakened  by  its  own  conceit, 
the  few  and  simple  principles  by 
which  economic  safety  is  won  and 
established.  Every  man  by  labor 
must  contribute  to  his  own  and  the 
world's  wealth,  by  the  sweat  of  his 
brow  he  must  earn  life's  happiness; 
he  must  guard  carefully  against 
the  waste  of  his  hard-won  gains, 
that  is,  he  must  be  thrifty;  he 
must  live  upon  his  own  wealth, 
not  upon  that  of  others,  that 
is,  he  must  live  within  his  own 
means,  thus  relegating  debt  to  the 
rubbish  heap;  and  the  strong  must 
help  the  weak,  that  is,  those  who 
have  must  give  to  those  who  have 
not.  It  will  not  be  an  easy  task  to 
make  men  accept  these  teachings,  in 
a  world  diseased  from  false  philos- 
ophies, but  you  must  not  falter  in 
your  attempts,  if  you  would  serve 
your  "own  generation," 

Do  not  forget,  however,  that  at 
the  bottom  of  our  economic  chaos, 
as  a  major  factor,  lies  the  horrible 
disease  of  the  soul  known  as,  covet- 
ousness,  which  may  affect  rich  or 
poor.  That  must  be  fought  and  con- 
quered, before  our  economic  system 
can  be  fully  righted.  Covetousness 
means  love  of  material  things  for 
themselves.  The  intense  desire  for 
gold,  property,  fame,  or  honor  dulls 
every  human  sense,  becomes  as  it 
were  an  anaesthetic  to  the  spiritual 
nature;  and  man  becomes  cruel, 
harsh,  miserly,  careless  of  his  fellow 
men.  Right-minded  men,  to  whom 
wealth  has  come,  have  recognized 
this  danger,  and  by  gifts  and  foun- 


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dations  have  tried  to  protect  them- 
selves against  the  insidious,  soul- 
destroying  evil  of  covetousness. 
The  covetous  man  is  useless  in  the 
service  of  his  generation.  Gold, 
lands,  property,  position  must  be 
sought  for  good  purposes  only,  and 
must  be  valued  as  means  to  an  end, 
not  as  ends  in  themselves,  and  thus 
they  must  be  used.  The  hoarder  or 
miser  is  a  menace  to  his  generation. 

It  must  also  be  said  that  in  se- 
curing a  better  economic  order  the 
hard-won  liberties  of  men  must  be 
preserved.  Man  has  fought  his  way 
upward,  from  superstition,  ignor- 
ance, degrading  poverty,  torture, 
and  slavery.  Centuries  have  been 
required  and  lives  sacrificed,  not  to 
speak  of  the  squalor  and  ills  of  mil- 
lions, to  win  the  freedom  that  men 
now  possess —  freedom  to  think,  to 
speak,  to  act,  under  the  law — to  en- 
joy the  earth  and  its  bounties.  In 
recent  years,  under  the  specious  pre- 
tense that  better  provision  may  be 
made  for  man's  material  wants,  and 
that  greater  equality  shall  prevail, 
dishonest  or  misguided  men  are  at- 
tempting to  lead  mankind  back  into 
the  horrors  of  the  dark  past,  where 
dictators  determine  the  course  of 
individual  lives.  The  lesson  of  his- 
tory is  clear.  Human  happiness  is 
the  product  of  individual  freedom, 
under  the  law  of  the  group.  Any 
departure  from  that  principle  spells 
bondage  and  misery  for  man. 

If  that  truth  has  not  been  made, 
in  a  spiritual  sense,  flesh  of  your 
flesh  and  bone  of  your  bone,  your 
training  has  been  a  dismal  failure. 
You  will  be  obliged,  if  you  are  to 
serve  your  "own  generation"  to  fight 
tyranny,  the  foe  of  liberty,  what- 
ever its  masquerading  name  may  be, 
whether  at  home  or  abroad.  It  will 
be  a  worth-while  battle,  for  human 
happiness  will  be  at  stake.  It  may 
be  the  sorest  of  your  life's  battles. 

HThe  battle  against  tyranny  may 
have  to  begin  at  home.  The  at- 
tempt to  deprive  men  of  their  lib- 
erties, which  means  to  reduce  them 
to  slavery,  roots  in  selfishness,  shall 
I  say,  again,  covetousness.  In  our 
own  republic,  where  democracy 
should  rule,  the  political  boss,  big 
or  little,  is  usually  impelled  by  self- 
ish motives.  He  cares  little  for  the 
liberty  of  the  group  he  seeks  to  con- 
trol. He  tyrannizes  as  far  as  he 
thinks  it  safe.  The  vast  majority  of 
politicians  are  more  concerned  with 
political  plums  than  with  govern- 
mental   principles.      Unfortunately, 

love  of  man  for  man  seldom  directs 
men  in  public  office.  To  our  shame 
many  men  in  public  office,  high  and 
low,  in  the  midst  of  personal  dis- 
honesty and  corruption,  pretend  to 
serve  their  fellow  men.  They  are  all 
would-be  dictators  of  different  de- 
grees. There  is  but  one  way  to  cor- 
rect such  evil — to  clean  house,  to 
turn  the  rogues  out  of  public  office, 
and  for  you  and  other  men  of  hon- 
est, righteous  outlook  to  take  their 
places.  The  fight  against  covetous- 
ness and  for  human  liberty  will  be 
part  of  your  .campaign  for  man's 
economic  sufficiency.  It  will  not  be 
a  pleasant  job,  perhaps,  but  there 
must  be  no  hesitancy  on  the  part  of 
educated  men  in  accepting  the  duty. 
In  bringing  about  a  better  economic 
world  you  will  indeed  be  of  service 
to  your  "own  generation." 

The  third  great  problem  of  life 
that  I  desire  to  mention  and  the  last, 
involves  your  largest  duty  if  you 
wish  to  serve  your  "own  genera- 

Our  times  are  unsurpassed  in 
knowledge.  Since  Galileo  dropped 
stones  from  the  leaning  tower  of 
Pisa,  man's  conquest  of  nature's 
secrets  has  gone  forward  at  an  ac- 
celerated pace.  The  sciences  have 
revealed  undreamed-of  mysteries 
of  nature.  Man,  who  is  never  con- 
tent with  merely  knowing,  has 
brought  the  forces  of  nature  under 
his  control,  and  reduced  them  to 
servitude  in  the  house  of  humanity. 
A  machine  does  the  work  of  a  hun- 
dred hands;  we  move  with  incred- 
ible swiftness  over  land  and  sea;  the 
spoken  word  is  heard  around  the 
world;  comforts  and  luxuries  sur- 
round us;  the  kings  of  the  past  were 
beggars  compared  with  the  average 
man  of  today.  It  is  a  marvelous  age 
of  unequalled  progress. 

Yet  we  must  confess,  it  is  not  all- 
around  progress.  Our  moral  prog- 
ress has  lagged  behind  fearfully. 
It  seems  actually  to  have  been  re- 
tarded by  us  in  our  eager  search  for 
new  material  victories.  Of  course, 
we  have  progressed  morally,  but  not 
enough;  for,  as  man  wins  new  con- 
quests over  nature,  and  new  powers 
are  placed  in  his  hands,  he  requires 
sturdier  moral  strength  to  use  his 
new  gifts. 

Note  some  of  our  present  condi- 
tions. Crime  is  rampant.  Murders 
are  commonplace.  College  gradu- 
ates are  confined  with  those  less  in- 
formed in  the  penitentiaries  of  the 
land.  Much  scientific  invention  is 
being  used  to  injure  or  destroy  man. 
The  methods  of  warfare  have  never 
been  so  dastardly  and  frightful.    As 

THE    IMPROVEMENT    ERA,    JULY,    1938 



far  as  the  law  permits,  fraudulent 
articles  are  hawked  over  the  coun- 
try. Stimulants,  narcotics,  habit-be- 
getting drugs,  to  whip  nerves  into 
action  or  to  render  them  insensible, 
are  publicized  with  the  greatest  al- 
lure and  at  staggering  costs.     For- 

telligence  in  the  universe  may  not 
enter  the  portals  of  science.  Many 
thoughtful,  educated  men  have 
come  to  believe  that  in  this  view 
lurks  the  most  persistent  danger  to 
our  civilization. 

As  a  result  of  this  placement  of 

tunes  are  being  built  up,  from  sales     religion,  conduct  or  proper  use  of 

to  the  unwary  or  the  weak,  and  the 
owners  claim  respectability.  The 
volume  of  theft,  lying,  and  corrup- 
tion in  public  and  private  places 
seems   out   of   strange  consonance 

man's  faculties,  which  is  a  product 
of  religion,  is  often  left  a  foundling 
on  the  doorstep  of  man's  discovered 
house  of  truth.  If  conduct  is 
touched  at  all,  it  is  a  part  of  ethics, 

with  our  gains  over  the  physical  by  which  men  live  to  some  degree 
universe.  In  the  midst  of  mental  righteously,  because,  selfishly  it  is 
plenty  there  remains  moral  poverty,  wise  to  do  so,  not  because  it  con- 
Under  the  effulgence  of  our  intel-  forms  to  the  higher  will  and  wisdom. 
lectual  light,  nations  are  actually  Society  becomes  a  lifeless,  souliess, 
planning  to  return  to  the  chained  though  mayhap  an  efficient  machine, 
conditions  which  we  have  long  called  when  governed  by  ethics;  when  un- 
the  dark  ages.  It  is  an  incredible  der  the  warm  sun  of  religion  it  de- 
situation,  velops,  grows,  and  behaves  as  a 
Co  evident  has  been  the  moral  lag  living  organism  blessing  all.  Men 
of  mankind  that  it  has  been  pro-  are  but  automatons  unless  religion 
posed  that  civilized  man  declare  an  enters  into  their  lives, 
intellectual  moratorium  until  the  The  forgetfulness  of  religion  is 
world's  morality  catches  up  with  our  sterilizing  the  world.  In  the  cold 
present  scientific  knowledge.  That,  view  of  material  science  lie  the  seeds 
of  course,  should  not  be  done.  There  0f  evils  that  threaten  the  destruction 
must  be  no  cessation  of  progress  in  0f  human  life,  liberty,  and  happiness. 
any  department  of  human  activity.  It  should  not  be  so,  for  the  objective 
Rather,  the  way  out  is  to  give  more  0f  science  is  truth;  the  objective  of 
attention  to  the  moral  advancement 

religion  is  truth.  Both  science  and 
religion  are  drawn  in  their  essential 
knowledge  and  conclusions  from  the 
same  unseen  universe.  Three  hun- 
dred years  of  scientific  exploration 
has  established  one  thing  above  all 
others:  the  unseen  world  is  real,  for 
out  of  it  has  come  the  major  part  of 
our  scientific  possessions.  The  one 
chief  claim  of  religion  is  the  reality 
of  the  unseen  world.  Religion  and 
science  are  but  parts  of  one  whole. 
There  is  unity  in  all  nature.  Reli- 
gion in  its  broad  aspect  is  the  phil- 
osophy of  all  knowledge;  it  is  the 
system  that  directs  all  knowledge 
towards  human  welfare;  science  in 
its  common  meaning  is  but  a  hand- 
maid of  religion. 

Tf  humanity  continues  to  accept 
the  gifts  of  science  apart  from  re- 
ligion, the  old  saving  truths  will  van- 
ish from  the  earth,  and  men  will  seek 
to  win  their  way  by  ruthless,  loveless 
methods.  Chaos  will  be  the  end. 
A  noble  service  will  be  rendered 
your  "own  generation"  if  you  teach 
with  all  your  might  that  all  knowl- 
edge, all  good  comes  from  one 
source,  the  eternal  God.  By  that 
token  alone  will  conduct  under 
God's  law,  save  the  generations  of 
men  from  their  own  folly. 

(Concluded  on  page  447) 

and  safety  of  mankind. 

Nothing  can  be  more  important 
for  the  protection  of  human  welfare. 
It  is  the  moral  nature  of  man  that 
directs  the  intellect  in  all  human 
relations.  Proper  conduct  is  a  pro- 
duct of  morality.  Take  away  moral 
direction  and  the  conduct  of  man 
cannot  be  foretold — it  may  bless  or 
curse;  it  may  heal  or  kill;  it  recog- 
nizes no  law  save  its  own  whim  and 

What  is  the  way  out?  How  may 
the  moral  actions  of  the  race  be  ac- 
celerated? That  is  a  heart  cry  of 
the  world.  Here  religion  enters. 
Morality  without  God  is  ethics; 
morality  with  God  is  religion. 

Perhaps  science,  itself,  in  this  age 
of  science,  is  to  blame.  Man's  pres- 
ent wealth  of  knowledge  is  so  enor- 
mous that  no  one  man  can  possess 
more  than  a  small  fraction  of  it. 
Consequently  it  has  been  divided 
into  many  disciplines,  and  the  sub- 
division continues.  Each  branch  has 
its  own  instruments  and  methods  of 
approach.  Men  in  one  division, 
hemmed  in  by  their  man-made  walls, 
often  know  little  or  nothing  of  other 
divisions.  In  the  midst  of  this  pro- 
fusion, religion  has  been  set  aside  as 
totally  different  from  all  other 
branches  of  human  experience. 
Moreover,   whatever  savors  of   in- 

Returned  Missionaries  Keep  Alive  the  Spirit  of  Their  Missions 

MISSIONARY   CLUB,    L.    D.    S.    COLLEGE— 1937-38 

First  Row:  J.   W.   Fair,  Logan;    Gladys   Crolley,  Bethune,   So.   Carolina;   Rella  Anderson,  Idaho 

Falls;  Harriet  Yates,  Lake  Point;   Elsie  Adams,  Douglas,  Georgia;  Georgia  Erickson,  Vernal. 
Second  Row:     Berger  Kleven,  Salt  Lake  City;  George  Peterson,  Salt  Lake  City;  Donald  Taylor, 

Ephraim;  Frank  Tingey,  Salt  Lake  City;  Harrison  Sperry,  Salt  Lake  City. 
Third   Row:      John   Hodgson,    Salt    Lake   City;    Dean    Walker,   Pleasant    Grove;   Wendell   Miller, 

Venice;  Victor  Degn,  Logan;  Arthur  Lunt,  Salt  Lake  City;  Burke  Jones,  Salt  Lake  City,  Warren 

Sutton,  Salt  Lake  City. 

This    club,    sponsored    by    Eugene    C.    Hinckley,    provided    programs    for    many    Sacrament 
Meetings  in  Salt  Lake  City  and  neighboring  stakes.     The  organization  fosters  spiritual,  scholas- 
tic,   and  social   activities,   thus  helping  returned  missionaries  through   the   difficult  readjustment 


Your  name  and  address  on  a  card  will  bring  full  information. 


70  North  Main  Street  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 


THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,    JULY,     1938 

Solution  to  June  Puzzle 

Scriptural  Crossword  Puzzle— Pauline  Precepts  (I  Thess.  5:15) 



















































































































X  X. 





















■  S 























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1  "Quench  not  .  .  .  Spirit" 

4  ".  .  .  your  own  selves" 

8  "But  let  us,  .  .  .  are  of  the  day" 

11  Seven,  a  combining  form 

12  Revived 

14  Epistle  that  Paul  wrote 

15  Our  country 

16  Style  of  painting 

17  "be  patient  toward  .  .  .  men" 
19  "I  am  made  all  .  .  .  to  all  men" 
21  Sportsman's  halloo 

23  "nor  the  ...  by  night"  (pi.) 

24  Hawkeye  State 

26  ".  .  .  ,  so  wouki  we  have  it" 

27  Clothing 

29  "they  shall  turn  away  their  .  .  ." 

31  "and  .  .  .  the  traditions  which  ye 

have  been  taught" 

32  "Therefore,  brethren,  stand  .  .  ." 
34  Burden 

36  Influenza 

calleth   you" 
have  no  hope" 

37  Part  of  the  foot 

39  Father  of  Joshua 

40  General  Secretary 

42  King  of  Bashan 

43  Possessive  pronoun 

44  "Faithful   is   he  .  . 
46  "even  as  others  .  . 
48  Small  area 

50  Translation 

51  God  in  Hebrew  names 
53  Told 

56  Land  measure 

57  Paul  counts  as  one 

58  "For  this  ...  the  will  of  God" 

59  "zealous  of  .  .  .  works" 

60  "the  day  of  the  Lord  .  .  .  cometh 

as  a  thief  in  the  night" 

Our  Text  from  Thessalonians  is  4, 
17,  19,  31,  32,  44,  46,  58,  and  59 


1  Both     Epistles     to     the  .  .  .  were 

written  by  4  down 

2  False  fruit  of  a  rosebush   (var.) 

3  "Now   an   omer  is   the  tenth   part 

of  an  .  .  ." 

4  "...  ,  called  to  be  an  apostle  of 

Jesus  Christ" 

5  4  down  was  this  when  he  "stood 

in  the  midst  of  Mars'  hill" 

6  Old  Dominion 

7  Marbles     and    watches    bear    this 


8  "the  shadow  of  thy  .  .  ."   (sing.) 

9  Ruler  of  district  in  old  Norway 
10  Song 

13  Glasses 

18  Christ,  the  divine  word 

20  "...  ,    every    one    that    thirsteth, 

come  ye  to  the  waters" 
22  ".  .  .  ,  not  so,  my  Lord" 

23  "thou    art    beside    thyself;    much 

learning  doth  make  thee  ..." 
25  "ye  that  ride  on  white  .  .  ." 
28  God  in  Hebrew  names 

30  Athenian 

31  "Esau  was  a  cunning  .  .  ." 

32  "and  the  waters  .  .  ." 

33  Anything 
35  Greek  letter 

38  "lest   that   by  any  means,   when   I 
have  preached  to  .  .  ." 

40  Festivals 

41  Let  it  stand 

45  Son  of  Lotan  Gen.  36:  22 
47  Son  of  Enoch;  raid  (anag.) 
49  Animal 
52  Constellation 

54  For  example 

55  ".  .  .  it  heartily,  as  to  the  Lord"' 

THE     IMPROVEMENT     ERA,     JULY,     1938 



(Concluded  from  page  445) 

Faith  in  God,  the  first  principle 
of  religion,  is  the  key  to  real,  not 
seeming,  progress  in  our  restless 
chaotic  age.  It  is  faith  that  the  na- 
tions need,  our  own  beloved  nation 
included.  We  have  thought  that 
knowledge,  alone,  had  saving 
power,  but  we  have  learned  to  our 
sorrow  that  we  cannot  substitute 
the  automobile  for  honesty,  the  air- 
plane for  virtue,  or  the  radio  for  love. 
We  have  thought  that  mastery  over 
steam,  gas,  and  electricity  would 
render  us  immune  from  defeat  in  life. 
But  life  teaches  that  the  issues  of 
birth  and  death  rise  above  man's  in- 
ventions, and  that  the  most  learned 
may  carry  grief  in  his  heart  and  go 
down  conquered  by  life's  eternal 

We  have  thought  to  set  up  a  so- 
cial structure  built  on  scientific  facts 
and  have  found  that  human  kind- 
ness, as  of  brother  to  brother,  has 
determined  the  success  of  the  ven- 
ture. We  have  tried  to  read  life's 
riddles  in  the  halls  of  science  and 
invention,  and  have  found  our  cry 
echoing  in  empty  rooms.  We  have 
sought  for  joy  in  the  conquests  of 
man;  but  have  found  it  in  self-con- 
quest, upon  our  knees  before  the 
Lord.  We  have  found  that  "there 
is  a  spirit  in  man,"  heaven-born, 
which  must  be  fed  if  life's  journey 
shall  be  sweet.  It  has  been  good  to 
return  from  the  icy  corridors  of  the 
faith-forgotten  mind  to  the  soul- 
warmth  of  religion,  of  God. 

Faith  is  light;  it  means  knowledge 
of  God,  the  certainty  of  His  exist- 
ence. Faith  gives  desire  and 
strength  to  do  the  will  of  God. 
Faith  directs  man  in  all  his  actions, 
It  enables  man  to  convert  hate  into 
love.  Faith  blesses,  makes  men 
mighty,  enlightens  the  mind,  glori- 
fies life.  The  ultimate  conquerors 
of  earth  will  be  men  of  faith.  Be- 
fore faith  every  enemy  retreats. 

The  need  of  our  land  is  faith; 
the  need  of  every  citizen  is  faith. 
There  will  be  no  solution  to  our 
problems  except  upon  the  terms  of 
faith.  Only  those  who  seek  part- 
nership with  God,  through  faith,  can 
conquer,  be  they  presidents,  kings, 
or  dictators. 

The  fear  of  God  has  ever  been 
the  beginning  of  wisdom.  It  means 
compliance  with  the  divinely  given 
codes  of  conduct,  which  have  built 
character  into  man's  structure.  The 
ten  commandments  and  the  beati- 
tudes are  yet  the  best  foundation  on 

which  to  build  all  successful  life. 
Without  recognition  of  them  and 
obedience  to  them,  there  can  be  no 
service  to  one's  "own  generation" 
or  any  other  generation. 

You  are  going  out  to  serve  your 
"own  generation."  Remember  the 
end  of  the  sentence,  "by  the  will  of 
God."  You  must  find  the  Maker  of 
the  Heavens  and  the  Earth;  you 
must  establish  faith  in  your  own 
souls  and  among  men;  you  must 
teach  men  to  look  upward  for  guid- 
ance; upon  your  knees  you  must  sur- 
render to  the  divine  purpose — then 
in  power  you  may  go  forth  to  serve 
your  "own  generation." 

I  have  asked  you  to  resolve  to 
serve  your  "own  generation,"  and 
have  spoken  of  three  fields  in  which 
such  service  is  greatly  needed: 
Education,  Economic  Betterment, 
and  Moral  Improvement.  If  you  ac- 
cept the  advice,  you  will  find  life 
filled  with  high,  exciting,  joyous  ad- 
venture. And  you  can  render  great 
service  in  your  day,  if  you  but  sur- 
render yourselves  completely  to  the 
changeless,  timeless  principles  of 
righteousness,  the  only  safe  insur- 
ance of  men  or  nations  against  dis- 
aster. Service  can  never  rise  above 
personal  virtues.  Your  own  integ- 
rity must  be  your  first  and  constant 
concern,  if  you  are  to  serve  your 
"own  generation." 

Do  not  fear.  Go  out  to  conquer. 
As  you  stand  for  God  and  His  laws, 
true  to  the  unchanging  principles  of 
righteousness,  you  will  become  ben- 
efactors of  the  race.  They  who  so 
live  are  not  weaklings,  but  strong, 
positive  men.  They  have  opinions, 
based  on  carefully  won  truth  which 
they  are  ready  to  express  and  de- 
fend. They  cannot  stoop  to  untruth 
for  personal  advantage.  They  have 
character.  To  them,  a  correct  phil- 
osophy of  human  life  is  worth  more 
than  political  party.  To  them,  what 
a  man  does  means  more  than  what 
he  says.  To  them,  traditions  must 
be  tested  by  the  rule  of  truth.  By 
them,  the  world  has  moved  forward 
through  the  dark  and  the  middle 
ages  into  this  day  of  unequalled  en- 
lightenment. By  them,  men  have 
won  their  freedom  of  thought  and 
speech,  political  equality,  and  a 
measure  of  economic  sufficiency.  By 
them,  the  problems  of  the  future  will 
be  solved,  and  all  men  be  fed, 
clothed,  and  sheltered  upon  our 
bounteous  earth.  They  are  the  able 
men  who  serve  their  "own  genera- 
tion by  the  will  of  God." 

C  K=><  xr*  ><=x  >o<  xrx  x=x  o<  xcx  >c=<  ><zx  y^x  x=x  x<y 









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AY  and  Can  are  two  indispensable  words — and  each  has  a 
meaning  that  should  be  respected.  May  properly  means 
the  asking  of  permission:  May  I  go?  Can  means  the  ability: 
Can  we  by  searching  find  truth? 


Dear  Editors: 

Have  been  teaching  school  in  the  Church  school  here  at 
Kelsey,  Texas,  for  the  past  two  years  and  have  found  The 
Improvement  Era  a  valuable  help  in  securing  information  on 
various  Church  activities  and  religious  topics.  When  one  is 
a  long  way  from  Utah  this  magazine  practically  gives  a 
summary  of  the  important  things  that  are  happening  in  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints. 

Very  sincerely  yours, 
J.  Reed  Noyes. 


March  7,  1938. 
Dear  Brethren: 

I  just  received  my  March  number  of  The  Improvement 
Era.  I'm  always  glad  to  have  it.  I'm  happy  to  say  that 
I  was  asked  to  be  [last  year]  Director  and  help  to  place  the  Era 
in  every  home. 

I'm  so  glad  our  missionaries  get  the  Era  and  know  it  will 
make  many  friends. 

Mrs.  Lenzy  Hoopes, 

Washington,  Utah. 


May  19,  1938. 
Dear  Brethren: 

WE,„the  Genealogical  Committee  of  the  Sacramento  Stake, 
wish  to  express  our  sincere  appreciation  for  including  in 
your  magazine  a  Genealogical  section.  We  feel  the  great 
responsibility  of  this  most  important  work  in  the  Church  and 
welcome  any  suggestions  and  help  you  can  offer  through  this 
department.  ,    j 

We  sincerely  thank  you  for  your  interest. 

Sacramento  Stake  Genealogical  Committee 

Luther  Y.  Smith,  Chairman. 
Llewellyn  Roberts,  1st  Counselor. 
Wm.  J.  Barnes,  2nd  Counselor. 
Andrew  L.  Harmic,  Temple  chairman. 
Iris  H.  Smith,  Secretary. 

Dear  Brother:  April  27,  1938. 

WE  are  indeed  grateful  for  the  excellent  work  of  our  Era 
Directors.  We  have  continually  aimed  high,  but  ever 
was  the  thought  instilled  in  our  minds  that  we  wanted  The 
Improvement  Era  in  the  homes  of  Latter-day  Saints  (and 
others)  where  that  "Voice  of  the  Church"  might  sound,  again 
and  again.  To  a  Church  founded  upon  continual  revelation, 
no  Latter-day  Saint  can  expect  to  keep  up  with  the  Church 
unless  he  has  that  "Voice"  coming  to  him  regularly  and  then 
guides  his  thoughts  and  actions  accordingly.  One  dear  Sister, 
having  joined  the  Church  against  family,  and  a  whole  city 
pitted  against  her,  when  we  were  speaking  of  President 
Grant,  said,  "I  have  The  Improvement  Era,  and  I  feel  that 
I  know  President  Grant  and  the  other  Presidents  as  if  I  had 
met  them  personally — and  known  them  all  my  life.  I  couldn't 
do  without  the  Era." 

Grateful   for  such  labors,   and  for  your  gracious  acknowl- 
edgments, I  remain, 

Sincerely  your  brother, 

George  Ellsworth, 
Mission  Supervisor  of  M.  I.  A., 

North  Central  States. 

forth  a  bottle  of  water  and  a  bottle  of  whiskey  and  set  them 
on  the  pulpit  together  with  two  glasses  and  an  old  tin  can. 
Jake  poured  into  the  one  glass  some  water  and  into  the  other 
glass  some  whiskey.  Then,  from  the  tin  can  he  produced 
two  large  worms,  placing  one  in  each  glass.  The  worm  in 
the  water  kept  wiggling  continually  while  the  worm  in  the 
whiskey  died  after  a  few  convulsive  struggles. 

"Now,"  asked  Jake,  "can  anyone  tell  us  the  moral  of  this 
little  illustration?" 

A  wide-eyed  little  Deacon  on  the  first  row  readily  volun- 
teered:    "If  you  have  worms — drink  whiskey!" 

Submitted  by  Ivan  Jensen,  Verdun,  Quebec,  Canada. 


The  Sunday  School  class  was  learning  the  Articles  of 
Faith,  but  the  teacher  was  not  particular  to  explain  the 
meaning  or  make  sure  that  the  pupils  understood  what  they 
were  saying.  When  it  came  time  for  little  Mary  to  repeat 
Article  2,  she  arose  and  said:  "We  believe  that  man  will  be 
punished  for  his  nonsense  and  not  for  Adam's  transgression." 
Submitted  by  Leah  B.  Lyman,  Blanding,  Utah. 



After  Sunday  School  one  morning,  little  Willie  was  heard 
to  sing:     "In  our  lovely  Deseret  where  the  Saints  of  God 
have  met,  There's  a  mile  or  two  of  children  all  around." 
Submitted  by  Leah  B.  Lyman,  Blanding,  Utah. 


To  A  crude  log  hut  in  what  is  now  Layton,  Utah,  came  a 
begging  Indian,  in  the  early  fifties.     When  he  failed  to 
get  all  he  asked  for,  he  grunted  and  exclaimed:     "Me  shoot!" 
The  husbandman  (Lewis  Whitesides)  retorted  with  a  with- 
ering look  and  piercing  voice,  the  following  challenge:     "Who 
the  h —  are  you  going  to  shoot?" 

The  wily    Indian   dropped   his  haughtiness    and   answered 
shyly:     "Me  shoot  chicken." 

Submitted  by  E.  M.  Whitesides,  Layton,  Utah. 




ld  Jake  Collins  stood  behind  the  pulpit  discoursing  ener- 
getically on  the  "Word  of  Wisdom."  Presently  he  brought 


hile  teaching  a  lesson  in  fourth  grade  history  class,  on 
the  pioneers,  and  the  settlement  of  Utah,  I  told  of  Indian 
depredations  and  hardships  of  the  pioneers  en  route  to  Salt 
Lake  City.  I  also  mentioned  the  number  of  babies  born  at 
Winter  quarters  on  a  cold  winter  night. 

After  the  lesson  was  finished,  I  asked  the  question:     "What 
was  one  of  the  great  trials  of  the  Pioneers?" 

A  little  boy's  hand  was  raised  promptly,  and  he  confidently 
replied:      "Babies." 

Submitted  by  Mrs.  Lewis  Sorensen,  Redmond,  Utah. 


Flora  Mae,   age  five,   came  home  from  kindergarten  one 
day  and  while  relating  her  experiences  said: 
"Mother,  all  the  children  wanted  the  cookies  you  gave  me 
in  my  lunch  today." 

Mother:     "Didn't  you  give  them  some?    You  usually  divide 
with  them." 

Flora  Mae:     "No,   'cause  these  were  special  good  cookies 
today,  but  they  kept  wanting  them  so  much  till  I  finally  asked 
them  if  they  didn't  know  that  one  of  the  ten  commandments 
said  'you  mustn't  want  what  your  neighbor  has  got'." 
Submitted  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  E.  Larsen, 

342  Bridge  St.,  Waynesboro,  Virginia. 


Mr.  J.  Whitney  Floyd,  Extension  Forester  for  Utah,  de- 
sires any  information  which  individuals  or  communities 
may  have  concerning  the  location  of  outstanding  trees.  He 
would  like  to  know,  for  example,  where  the  tallest  tree  in  the 
state  is  located;  the  oldest;  the  one  with  the  largest  diameter 
or  any  which  have  historical  interest.  If  you  have  any  such 
information,  you  are  invited  to  forward  it  to  Mr.  Floyd,  in  care 
of  the  Extension  Service,  Logan,  Utah. 


Top  left,  Gene  Halliday,  KSL's  music  director,  at  the 
console  of  the  KSL  Organ  over  which  he  has  presided  for 
many  years.  Mr.  Halliday  plans  and  prepares  your  Musi- 
cal entertainment  for  this  station.  Center,  KSL's  15-piece 
concert  orchestra.  Below,  top,  William  Hardiman,  asso- 
ciate orchestra  director,  and,  bottom,  Glenn  Lee,  master 
of   ceremonies   and   director  of   many   KSL  musical   shows. 

Orchestra  members  in  the  picture  are,  left  to  right,  back 
row:  ; Shirl  Thayne,  drums;  Virge  Dimond,  bass;  Frances  Os- 
borne, piano.  Middle  row:  Ralph  Eskelson,  Ralph  Jacobsen, 
Milt  Rawlings,  saxophone  and  clarinet;  Glenn  Lee,  guitar; 
Oge  Jorgensen,  cello;  Dan  Frewin  and  Seare  Morrison,  trum- 
pets; Reed  Tanner,  trombone.  Front  row,  Earl  Kevitch,  Wil- 
liam Hardiman,  Erma  Grove,  violins;  Kaye  Roylance,  violin, 
oboe  and  reeds. 

55**  ?r * 

\rt  ra<*»°    1"  _         ....  ana  snow         . 

Here  to  ^°X«  l**ffi$  ^.^  °  a    k 

.a«'^S«-areSP  tenU.bers 

moment-  *P .    "b^ance^       .    VlCn  pres  on  *ne  r. 

used.  fast's  roustcai     *  r  USTe 

air,  an  addeo 

The  Voice  of  the  West 

Columbia's  50,000  watt 
affiliate  in  Salt  Lake  City. 




BEAUTIFULLY  situated,  the  progressive  city  of  Ogden,  one  of  Utah's  foremost  cities,  with  a  populatio  nof  41,500,  gateway 
to  beautiful  Ogden  Canyon,  is  quick  to  take  advantage  of  life  insurance  and  its  many  benefits. 

BENEFICIAL  LIFE  INSURANCE  COMPANY  serves  Ogden,  Northern  Utah  and  Southern  Idaho  with  an  efficient  staff 
of  16  insurance  experts  who  are  helping  to  preserve  community  progress  and  welfare.  They  represent  one  of  America's 
leading  Insurance  companies  with  a  high  rating  which  has  served  Utah  notably  for  38  years. 

Investigate  the  many  advantages  of  insuring  with  BENEFICIAL  and  learn  how  every  policy  holder  participates  in  the 
net  earnings  of  the  company.  Assets  total  more  than  thirteen  million  dollars.  All  are  invited  to  get  in  touch  with  the  local 
representatives,  or,  to  write  the  home  office,  and  benefit  by  our  policies  to  fit  every  need. 


Home  Office — Beneficial  Life  Building,  Salt  Lake  City,   Utah 

heber  j.  grant,   president 

DAVID  PETERSEN — General  Agent 

Parley  P.  Black 
Roy   N.    Davis 
John   Israelsen 
P.  M.  Stoker 

W.  H.  Thomas 
A.  S.  Tolman 
James  L.  Dunford 
George  E.  Burgi 

F.  R.  Remington 
Leon  R.  Mathews 
F.  Leslie  Shepherd 
James  S.  Miller 

Leslie  T.  Norton 
Oliver  E.  Baird 
Reed  Gammell 
W.  B.  Trowbridge